MTN 2014.07.31 10-K for Q4


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ý ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended July 31, 2014

or
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from          to             
Commission File Number: 001-09614
Vail Resorts, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
51-0291762
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
390 Interlocken Crescent
Broomfield, Colorado
 
80021
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(303) 404-1800
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  x  Yes  ¨  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  ¨  Yes  x No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
x  Yes  ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
x  Yes  ¨  No




Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
 
  
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
¨  Yes  x  No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of $68.15 per share as reported on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Tape on January 31, 2014 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $2,441,712,957.
As of September 17, 2014, 36,218,867 shares of Common Stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of July 31, 2014 are incorporated by reference herein into Part III, Items 10 through 14, of this Annual Report.





Table of Contents
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
Item 15.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Except for any historical information contained herein, the matters discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) contain certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements relate to analyses and other information, which are based on forecasts of future results and estimates of amounts not yet determinable. These statements also relate to our future prospects, developments and business strategies.
These forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “will” and similar terms and phrases, including references to assumptions. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in or suggested by such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that such plans, intentions or expectations will be achieved. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
 
prolonged weakness in general economic conditions, including adverse effects on the overall travel and leisure related industries;
unfavorable weather conditions or natural disasters;
willingness of our guests to travel due to terrorism, the uncertainty of military conflicts or outbreaks of contagious diseases, and the cost and availability of travel options;
adverse events that occur during our peak operating periods combined with the seasonality of our business;
competition in our mountain and lodging businesses;
high fixed cost structure of our business;
our ability to successfully initiate, complete and sell our real estate development projects and achieve the anticipated financial benefits from such projects;
our ability to fund resort capital expenditures;
our reliance on government permits or approvals for our use of Federal land or to make operational and capital improvements;
risks related to federal, state and local government laws, rules and regulations;
risks related to our reliance on information technology;
our failure to maintain the integrity of our customer or employee data;
adverse consequences of current or future legal claims;
a deterioration in the quality or reputation of our brands, including from the risk of accidents at our mountain resorts;
our ability to hire and retain a sufficient seasonal workforce;
risks related to our workforce, including increased labor costs;
loss of key personnel;
our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses or future acquisitions;
our ability to realize anticipated financial benefits from Canyons or PCMR;
impairments or write downs of our assets;
changes in accounting estimates and judgments, accounting principles, policies or guidelines; and
a materially adverse change in our financial condition.
All forward-looking statements attributable to us or any persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements.
If one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or if underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results may vary materially from those expected, estimated or projected. Given these uncertainties, users of the information included in this Form 10-K, including investors and prospective investors, are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements that we make for a number of reasons including those described in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K. All forward-looking statements are made only as of the date hereof. Except as may be required by law, we do not intend to update these forward-looking statements, even if new information, future events or other circumstances have made them incorrect or misleading.

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PART I
 
  
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
General
Vail Resorts, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is referred to throughout this document as “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company.”

Vail Resorts, Inc., a Delaware corporation, was organized as a holding company in 1997 and operates through various subsidiaries. Our operations are grouped into three business segments: Mountain, Lodging and Real Estate, which represented approximately 77%, 19% and 4%, respectively, of our net revenue for our fiscal year ended July 31, 2014 (“Fiscal 2014”).

In Fiscal 2014 our Mountain segment operated eight world-class mountain resort properties and two urban ski areas as well as ancillary services, primarily including ski school, dining and retail/rental operations. Our Lodging segment owns and/or manages a collection of luxury hotels under our RockResorts brand, as well as other strategic lodging properties and a large number of condominiums located in proximity to our mountain resorts, certain National Park Service ("NPS") concessionaire properties including Grand Teton Lodge Company (“GTLC”), which operates destination resorts at Grand Teton National Park; Colorado Mountain Express (“CME”), a Colorado resort ground transportation company; and mountain resort golf courses. Collectively, the Mountain and Lodging segments are considered the Resort segment. Our Real Estate segment owns and develops real estate in and around our resort communities.

Park City Mountain Resort Acquisition
On September 11, 2014, VR CPC Holdings, Inc. (“VR CPC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and Greater Park City Company, Powdr Corp., Greater Properties, Inc., Park Properties, Inc., and Powdr Development Company (collectively, “PCMR Sellers”) entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) providing for the acquisition of substantially all of the assets related to Park City Mountain Resort ("PCMR") in Park City, Utah. The cash purchase price was $182.5 million, subject to certain post-closing adjustments. As provided under the Purchase Agreement, we acquired the property, assets and operations that includes the ski area and related amenities of PCMR, from PCMR Sellers and leased certain realty, acquired certain assets, and assumed certain liabilities of PCMR Sellers relating to PCMR. In addition to the Purchase Agreement, the parties entered into ancillary transaction documents, including an agreement that settled all ongoing litigation related to the validity of a lease of certain land owned by Talisker Land Holdings, LLC under the ski terrain of PCMR. The following discussion of our business excludes the recent acquisition of PCMR. For additional information, see Note 19, Subsequent Event, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

For financial information and other information about the Company’s segments, see Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” below.

Mountain Segment

Our portfolio of world-class mountain resorts and urban ski areas includes:

Vail Mountain (“Vail Mountain”) - the single most visited mountain resort in the United States for the 2013/2014 ski season. Vail Mountain offers some of the most expansive and varied terrain in North America with approximately 5,300 skiable acres including seven world renowned back bowls and the resort's rustic Blue Sky Basin.

Breckenridge Ski Resort (“Breckenridge”) - the second most visited mountain resort in the United States for the 2013/2014 ski season with five interconnected peaks offering an expansive variety of terrain for every skill level, including the recent addition of Peak 6 which provides access to above tree line intermediate and expert terrain, and progressive and award-winning terrain parks. The Town of Breckenridge is well known for its historic town and vibrant nightlife.

Keystone Resort (“Keystone”) - the third most visited mountain resort in the United States for the 2013/2014 ski season and home to the highly renowned A51 Terrain Park as well as the largest area of night skiing in Colorado. Keystone also offers guests a unique skiing opportunity through guided snow cat ski tours accessing five bowls. Keystone is a premier destination for families with its “Kidtopia” program focused on providing activities for kids on and off the mountain.


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Beaver Creek Resort (“Beaver Creek”) - the sixth most visited mountain resort in the United States for the 2013/2014 ski season. Beaver Creek is a European-style resort with multiple villages and also includes a world renowned children's ski school program focused on providing a first-class experience with unique amenities such as a dedicated children's gondola. Beaver Creek also annually hosts the only North American men's World Cup downhill races, and with Vail Mountain will host the 2015 FIS World Alpine Ski Championships.

Heavenly Mountain Resort (“Heavenly”) - located near the South Shore of Lake Tahoe with over 4,800 skiable acres, straddling the border of California and Nevada, offers unique and spectacular views of Lake Tahoe and boasts the largest snowmaking capacity in the Lake Tahoe region. Heavenly offers great nightlife including its proximity to several casinos.

Northstar Resort (“Northstar”) - the premier luxury mountain resort destination near Lake Tahoe and offers premium lodging, a vibrant base area and over 3,000 skiable acres. Northstar’s village features high-end shops and restaurants, a conference center and a 9,000 square-foot skating rink.

Canyons Resort ("Canyons") - the largest mountain resort in Utah offering over 4,000 skiable acres and features a modern base area located less than 35 miles from the Salt Lake City International Airport and adjacent to the historic downtown of Park City with all of its distinctive restaurants and nightlife. The resort offers guests an outstanding ski experience with fine dining, ski school, retail and lodging.

Park City Mountain Resort ("PCMR") - acquired on September 11, 2014, PCMR is located in the heart of historic Park City, Utah, one the country's great ski destinations. PCMR offers terrain for every type of skier and snowboarder on over 3,300 acres including manicured groomers, bowls and some of the industry's most progressive terrain parks and half pipes.  PCMR’s location gives easy access to outstanding lodging, dining and shopping in the vibrant town of Park City.

Kirkwood Mountain Resort (“Kirkwood”) - located southwest of Lake Tahoe and offers a unique location atop the Sierra Crest. Kirkwood is recognized for offering some of the best high alpine advanced terrain in North America with 2,000 feet of vertical drop and over 2,300 acres of terrain.

Urban Ski Areas - Afton Alps Ski Area ("Afton Alps") is the largest ski area near a major city in the Midwest (33 miles from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area) and offers 48 trails on 300 skiable acres, with night skiing, riding and tubing. Mount Brighton Ski Area ("Mt. Brighton") is located 43 miles from Detroit and offers 26 trails on 130 skiable acres offering night skiing and riding. Both Afton Alps and Mt. Brighton underwent transformative upgrades for the 2013/2014 ski season to enhance the ski and base area experience for skiers and riders in each market.

Vail Mountain, Beaver Creek, Breckenridge and Keystone, all located in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, Heavenly, Northstar and Kirkwood, located in the Lake Tahoe region of California/Nevada, and Canyons, located in Utah, are year-round mountain resorts that provide a comprehensive resort experience to a diverse clientele with an attractive demographic profile. Each resort offers a broad complement of winter and summer recreational activities, including skiing, snowboarding, snowshoeing, snowtubing, sightseeing, mountain biking, guided hiking, children's activities and other recreational activities.

Our Mountain segment derives revenue through the sale of lift tickets and season passes as well as a comprehensive offering of amenities available to guests, including ski and snowboard lessons, equipment rentals and retail merchandise sales, a variety of dining venues, private club operations and other winter and summer recreational activities. In addition to providing extensive guest amenities, we also lease some of our owned and leased commercial space to third party operators to add unique restaurants and retail stores to the mix of amenities at the base of our resorts.

Ski Industry/Market

There are approximately 760 ski areas in North America and approximately 470 in the United States, ranging from small ski area operations that service day skiers to large resorts that attract both day skiers and destination resort guests looking for a comprehensive vacation experience. One of the primary ski industry statistics for measuring performance is “skier visit,” which represents a person utilizing a ticket or pass to access a mountain resort for any part of one day, and includes both paid and complimentary access. During the 2013/2014 ski season, combined skier visits for all ski areas in the United States were approximately 56.5 million and all North American skier visits were approximately 74.5 million. Our mountain resorts and urban ski areas had approximately 7.7 million skier visits during the 2013/2014 ski season, or approximately 13.6% of United

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States skier visits, and an approximate 10.3% share of the North American skier visits. Our largest presence is in the Colorado and Lake Tahoe regions.

Our Colorado mountain resorts appeal to both day skiers and destination guests due to the resorts' proximity to Colorado's Front Range (Denver/Colorado Springs/Boulder metropolitan areas), accessibility from several airports, including Denver International Airport and Eagle County Airport, and the wide range of amenities available at each resort. Colorado has 29 ski areas, six of which are considered “Front Range Destination Resorts,” including all of our Colorado resorts, catering to both the Colorado Front Range and destination-skiers. All Colorado mountain resorts combined recorded approximately 12.7 million skier visits for the 2013/2014 ski season with skier visits at our Colorado mountain resorts totaling 5.5 million, or approximately 43.2% of all Colorado skier visits for the 2013/2014 ski season.

Lake Tahoe, which straddles the border of California and Nevada, is a major skiing destination less than 100 miles from Sacramento and Reno and approximately 200 miles from San Francisco, drawing skiers from the entirety of California and making it a convenient destination for both day skiers and destination guests. Heavenly located near the South Shore of Lake Tahoe, Northstar, located near the North Shore of Lake Tahoe, and Kirkwood, located about 35 miles southwest of South Lake Tahoe are popular year-round vacation destinations, featuring outstanding winter sports offerings and extensive summer attractions. Heavenly, Northstar and Kirkwood are proximate to both the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and the Sacramento International Airport. California and Nevada have 31 ski areas. Our Lake Tahoe resorts had 1.4 million skier visits for the 2013/2014 ski season, capturing approximately 29.4% of California's and Nevada's approximately 4.9 million total skier visits for the 2013/2014 ski season.


Competition

There is limited opportunity for development of new ski areas due to the limited private lands on which ski areas can be built, the difficulty in obtaining the appropriate governmental approvals to build on public lands and the significant capital needed to construct the necessary infrastructure. As such, there have been virtually no new major resorts in North America for more than 30 years, which has and should continue to allow the best positioned resorts, including all of our resorts, to capture a majority of future industry growth. Our resorts compete with other major destination mountain resorts, including Aspen/Snowmass, Copper Mountain, Deer Valley, Squaw Valley USA, Steamboat, Whistler Blackcomb and Winter Park, as well as other ski areas in Colorado, California, Nevada, Utah, the Pacific Northwest and Southwest, and other destination ski areas worldwide and non-ski related vacation options and destinations.

While the ski industry has performed well in recent years in terms of number of skier visits, with the seven best seasons occurring in the past 10 years for United States visitation, a particular ski area's growth is also largely dependent on either attracting skiers away from other resorts, generating more revenue per skier visit and/or generating more visits from each skier. Better capitalized mountain resorts, including our mountain resorts, are expanding their offerings as well as enhancing the quality and experience by adding new high speed chairlifts, gondolas, terrain parks, state of the art grooming machines, expanded terrain, on-mountain dining venues as well as amenities at the base areas of the resorts, including dining, retail and lodging, all of which are aimed at increasing guest visitation and revenue per skier visit.

Our premier resorts and business model differentiate our company from the rest of the ski industry. We have iconic, branded mountain resorts in three important ski destinations in Colorado, Lake Tahoe and Utah. Through our sales of season passes, we provide our guests with a strong value proposition, in return for guests committing to ski at our resorts prior to, or very early into the ski season, which we believe attracts more guests to our resorts. We believe that we invest in more capital improvements than our competitors and that we can also create synergies by operating multiple resorts, thus enhancing our profitability. Additionally, all of our mountain resorts, with the exception of Kirkwood, typically rank in the 25 most visited ski resorts in the United States, and most of our mountain resorts consistently rank in the top 25 ranked ski resorts in North America according to industry surveys, which we attribute to our resorts' ability to provide a high-quality experience.

Summer tourism in Colorado and Lake Tahoe exceeds winter tourism which provides for a strong summer business opportunity. Our mountain resorts offer non-ski related attractions such as sightseeing, mountain biking, guided hiking, 4x4 Jeep tours, zip line tours, challenge ropes courses, alpine slide and coaster, children's activities and other recreational activities. In the fall of 2011, the Ski Area Recreational Opportunities Enhancement Act was enacted into law which will allow our mountain resorts on Forest Service land to offer more summer-season recreational opportunities. We have a comprehensive summer activities plan for Vail Mountain, Breckenridge, and Heavenly, which will include a number of new activities, including zip lines, challenge ropes courses, tubing, mountain excursions, canopy tours and Forest Flyers. Included in the first phase of the plan at Vail Mountain are two challenge ropes courses and zip lines which were completed and operational in the summer of 2013. Additionally, zip lines were completed and operational during Fiscal 2014 at Breckenridge and Heavenly.

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Smaller scale improvements are planned for Beaver Creek, Keystone and Northstar. We believe these new activities are already popular with summer travelers and will introduce a new guest demographic to our mountain resorts.

The ski industry statistics stated in this section have been derived from data published by Colorado Ski Country USA, Canadian Ski Council, Kottke National End of Season Survey 2013/2014 (the “Kottke Survey”) and other industry publications.

All of our mountain resorts maintain the distinction of competing effectively as both market leaders and quality leaders. The following factors contribute directly to each resort's success:

Exceptional mountain experience --

World-Class Mountain Resorts and Integrated Base Resort Areas

All eight of our mountain resorts offer a multitude of skiing and snowboarding experiences for the beginner, intermediate, advanced and expert levels. Each resort is also fully integrated into expansive resort base areas offering a broad array of lodging, dining, retail, nightlife and other amenities to the resort's guests, some of which we own or manage.

Snow Conditions

Our mountain resorts are located in areas that generally receive significantly higher than average snowfall compared to most other ski resort locations in the United States. Our resorts in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and in the Wasatch Range of the Rocky Mountains in Utah all receive average yearly snowfall between 20 and 39 feet. Even in these abundant snowfall areas, we have significant snowmaking systems that can help provide a more consistent experience, especially in the early season. Additionally, we provide several hundred acres of groomed terrain at each of our mountain resorts with extensive fleets of snow grooming equipment.

Lift Service

We systematically upgrade our lifts to increase uphill capacity and streamline skier traffic to maximize the guest experience. In the past several years, we have installed several high-speed chairlifts and gondolas across our mountain resorts, including a new high-speed, six-person chairlift and a new four-person chairlift to access the brand new Peak 6 area in Breckenridge; a new high-speed, six-person chairlift at Vail; a state-of-the-art ten passenger gondola at Vail; a four-passenger high-speed chairlift servicing Vail Mountain's back bowls; and high-speed chairlifts at both Beaver Creek and Northstar. Additionally, for the 2014/2015 ski season we expect to have installed a new high-speed, state-of-the-art combination gondola and chairlift to replace the existing Centennial Express Lift at Beaver Creek and a new high-speed, six-person chairlift to replace the existing Colorado SuperChair at Breckenridge which is the primary chairlift serving the critical Peak 8 base area.

Terrain Parks

Our mountain resorts and urban ski areas are committed to leading the industry in terrain park design, education and events for the growing segment of freestyle skiers and snowboarders. Each of our mountain resorts has multiple terrain parks that include progressively-challenging features. These park structures, coupled with freestyle ski school programs, promote systematic learning from basic to professional skills.

Extraordinary service and amenities --

Commitment to the Guest Experience

Our mission is to provide quality service at every level of the guest experience. Prior to arrival at our mountain resorts, guests can receive personal assistance through our full-service, in-house travel center and through our comprehensive websites to book desired lodging accommodations, lift tickets, ski school lessons, equipment rentals and travel arrangements. Upon arrival, our resort staff serve as ambassadors to engage guests, answer questions and create a customer focused environment. In addition, we offer guests what we believe is the industry leading EpicMix application. EpicMix is an online and mobile application that, through radio frequency technology, captures a guest's activity on the mountain (e.g. number of ski days, vertical feet skied, and chairlift activity) and allows a guest to share

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his or her experience and accomplishments with family and friends on social networks. Since the initial launch of our EpicMix technology, we have expanded the offering to include:

EpicMix Photo - EpicMix Photo provides professional photos and allows guests to take and share photos on social networks;
EpicMix Racing - EpicMix Racing allows our guests a new way to experience ski racing at our mountain resorts/ ski areas and compare their race times to ski racing great, Lindsey Vonn, as well as compete against racers from all over our mountain resorts/ski areas and track and share all of their accomplishments; and
EpicMix Academy - EpicMix Academy allows our ski school instructors to certify the attainment of certain skills and ski levels for any of the students in their classes and allows students to earn permanent recognition and review their accomplishments.

We also solicit guest feedback through a variety of surveys and results, which are used to ensure high levels of customer satisfaction, understand trends and develop future resort programs and amenities.

Season Pass Products

We offer a variety of season pass products for all of our mountain resorts and urban ski areas that are marketed towards both out-of-state and international (“Destination”) guests and in-state and local (“In-state”) guests. Our season pass products are available for purchase predominately during the period prior to the start of the ski season, offering our guests a better value in exchange for their commitment to ski at our resorts before the season begins. As such, our season pass program drives strong customer loyalty, mitigates exposure to more weather sensitive guests leading to greater revenue stability, and allows us to capture valuable guest data. Additionally, our season pass customers typically ski more days each season than those guests who do not buy season passes which leads to additional ancillary spending. Season pass products generated approximately 40% of our total lift revenue for the 2013/2014 ski season. In addition, our season pass products attract new guests to our mountain resorts and urban ski areas. Sales of season pass products are a key component of our overall Mountain segment revenue and helps create strong synergies among our mountain resorts. Our season pass products range from providing access to one or a combination of our mountain resorts and urban ski areas to our Epic Pass which provides unrestricted access to all our mountain resorts and urban ski areas. For the 2014/2015 ski season, we are providing, among others, the following season pass product options to our guests:

Epic Pass - The Epic Pass provides unlimited and unrestricted access to all of our mountain resorts and urban ski areas, as well as access to mountain resorts in France, Switzerland and Japan;
Epic Local Pass - The Epic Local Pass provides unlimited, unrestricted skiing or riding at Breckenridge, Keystone, Afton Alps, Mt. Brighton and Arapahoe Basin with limited restrictions at Canyons, Heavenly, Northstar and Kirkwood; it also includes a total of ten days at Vail and Beaver Creek with holiday restrictions;
Epic 7-Day - The Epic 7-Day provides a total of seven unrestricted days valid at Vail, Beaver Creek, Breckenridge, Keystone, Canyons, Heavenly, Northstar, Kirkwood and Arapahoe Basin, plus seven free days at Afton Alps or Mt. Brighton;
Summit Value Pass - The Summit Value Pass provides unlimited skiing or riding at Keystone and Arapahoe Basin with limited restrictions at Breckenridge;
Tahoe Local Pass - The Tahoe Local Pass provides unlimited skiing or riding at Heavenly, Northstar and Kirkwood, with limited holiday restrictions; and
Tahoe Value Pass - The Tahoe Value Pass provides access to Heavenly, Kirkwood and Northstar with limited restrictions.

Premier Ski Schools

Our resorts are home to some of the highest quality and most widely recognized ski and snowboard schools in the industry. Through a combination of outstanding training and abundant work opportunities, the schools have become home to many of the most experienced and credentialed professionals in the business. We complement our instructor staff with state-of-the-art facilities and extensive learning terrain, all with a keen attention to guest needs, including

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offering a wide variety of adult and child group and private lesson options with a goal of creating lifelong skiers and riders and showcasing to our guests all the terrain our resorts have to offer.

On-Mountain Activities

We are a ski industry leader in providing comprehensive destination vacation experiences, including on-mountain activities designed to appeal to a broad range of interests. In addition to our exceptional ski experiences, guests can choose from a variety of non-ski related activities including snowtubing, snowshoeing, guided snowmobile and scenic cat tours, backcountry expeditions, horse-drawn sleigh rides and high altitude dining. During the summer, on-mountain recreational activities provide guests with a wide array of options including scenic chairlift and gondola rides, mountain biking, horseback riding, hiking, 4x4 Jeep tours, zip lines, children's activities, challenge ropes courses, and an alpine slide and an alpine coaster.

Dining

Our resorts provide a variety of quality on-mountain and base village dining venues, ranging from top-rated fine dining restaurants to trailside express food service outlets. We operate approximately 129 dining venues at our eight mountain resorts and two urban ski areas.

Retail/Rental

We have approximately 185 retail/rental locations specializing in sporting goods including ski, snowboard, golf and cycling equipment. In addition to providing a major retail/rental presence at each of our mountain resorts, we also have retail/rental locations throughout the Colorado Front Range and at other Colorado, California and Utah ski resorts, as well as the San Francisco Bay Area, Salt Lake City, Minneapolis and Appleton, Wisconsin. Many of the locations in the Colorado Front Range and in the San Francisco Bay Area also offer prime venues for selling our season pass products.

Urban Ski Areas

To further promote our season pass products and create a stronger connection between key skier markets and our iconic destination mountain resorts in Colorado, Lake Tahoe and Utah, we acquired two urban ski areas in the Midwest in December 2012. We operate Afton Alps in Minnesota and Mt. Brighton in Michigan which serve major snow sports markets in the Midwest with more than 468,000 active skiers and snowboarders in the nearby Minneapolis-St. Paul and Detroit metropolitan areas. Prior to the start of the 2013/2014 ski season, we invested approximately $20 million at these ski areas to significantly enhance the ski and ride experience. We improved snowmaking capabilities that extended the length of each ski area's season, created state-of-the-art terrain parks with extensive new features, replaced and improved lifts, renovated base area dining and skier service facilities and added our signature EpicMix technology to personalize the guest experience.

Lodging and Real Estate Development

Quality lodging options are an integral part of providing a complete resort experience. Our 18 owned or managed hotels and resorts proximate to our mountain resorts, including five RockResorts branded properties, and a significant inventory of managed condominium rooms provide numerous accommodation options for our mountain resort guests. Our real estate development efforts provide us with the potential to add profitability while expanding our destination bed base and upgrading our resorts through the development of amenities such as luxury hotels, private clubs, spas, parking and commercial space for restaurants and retail shops. Our Lodging and Real Estate segments have and continue to invest in resort related assets as part of their initiatives which enhance the overall resort experience.

Environmental Stewardship and Social Responsibility

Environmental stewardship is a core philosophy for us. Our resorts operate in some of the world's greatest natural environments, and we are compelled to care for and conserve them. Through our sustainability program, we focus on resource conservation, forest health and building stronger local communities through contributions to local non-profits. Our environmental stewardship efforts are diverse and touch nearly every area of our operations. One of the most encompassing programs is our commitment to energy reduction. After reaching an initial goal to reduce our energy consumption by 10%, we have set a new goal of another 10% reduction by 2020. In addition, we demonstrate our commitment to forest health with several partnerships that help raise resources for local environmental programs,

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including the National Forest Foundation, The Tahoe Fund and Mountain Trails Foundation in Park City. We also boast an extensive on-mountain recycling program, with a goal to divert over 50% of our waste by the end of calendar year 2015, and through our "Water on the Rocks" program, have reduced 50% of plastic water bottles used in our hotel rooms. Lastly, our charitable giving focuses on supporting education and youth programs, encouraging innovation in and implementation of environmental stewardship practices and enhancing the quality of life in the communities in which we operate.

Accessibility from major metropolitan areas--

Our mountain resorts and urban ski areas are well located and easily accessible by both Destination and In-State guests.

Colorado Resorts

The Colorado Front Range, with a population of approximately 4.5 million, and growing faster than the national average over the past 10 years, is within approximately 100 miles from each of our Colorado resorts, with access via a major interstate highway. Additionally, our Colorado resorts are proximate to both Denver International Airport and Eagle County Airport.
  
Lake Tahoe Resorts

Heavenly, Northstar, and Kirkwood, are proximate to two large California population centers, the Sacramento/Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay Area and draw skiers from throughout California and Nevada. Each of our Lake Tahoe resorts is approximately 100 miles from Sacramento/Central Valley and approximately 200 miles from the San Francisco Bay area via major interstate highways. Additionally, our Lake Tahoe resorts are serviced by the Reno/Tahoe International Airport, Sacramento International Airport and the San Francisco International Airport.

Canyons

The Salt Lake City metropolitan area, with a population of over 1.0 million, is approximately 30 miles from Canyons and is accessible via a major interstate highway. Additionally, the Salt Lake City International Airport is just a two-hour flight from either the Los Angeles International Airport or the San Diego International Airport; which are the two major airports serving the Southern California region that has a population of approximately 23.0 million.

Urban Ski Areas

Afton Alps and Mt. Brighton are located within 50 miles of Minneapolis/St. Paul and Detroit, respectively. This close proximity to major Midwestern skier markets allows guests to visit regularly during the week, including for popular night skiing, or on the weekends. Additionally, both cities offer major airports with routine direct flights to Denver, San Francisco and Salt Lake City.


Marketing and Sales

We promote our resorts through targeted marketing and sales programs, which include customer relationship marketing ("CRM") to targeted audiences, promotional programs, digital marketing (including social, search and display), loyalty programs that reward frequent guests and traditional media advertising where appropriate (e.g. targeted print, TV, radio).  Additionally, our resorts and the snowsports industry are frequently featured through our OnTheSnow.com and Skiinfo.com websites, which are two of the world's most visited online snowsports portals.  We also have marketing programs directed at attracting groups, corporate meetings and convention business. Most marketing efforts drive traffic to our websites, where we provide our guests with information regarding each of our resorts, including services and amenities, reservations information, virtual tours and the opportunity to book/purchase multiple products for their vacations or other visits.  We also enter into strategic alliances with companies to enhance the guest in-resort experience and to create opportunities for cross-marketing.

Seasonality

Ski resort operations are highly seasonal in nature, with a typical ski season beginning in mid-November and running through mid-April. In an effort to partially counterbalance the concentration of revenue in the winter months, we offer non-ski related activities such as sightseeing, mountain biking, guided hiking, 4x4 Jeep tours, zip lines, challenge ropes courses, an alpine slide and coaster, children's activities and other recreational activities such as golf (included in the operations of the Lodging

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segment). These activities also help attract destination conference and group business to our resorts. Additionally, we have a comprehensive summer activities plan for Epic Discovery, a Summer Mountain Adventure, which will initially be introduced at Vail Mountain, Breckenridge, and Heavenly, and will include a number of new activities, including zip lines, challenge ropes courses, tubing, mountain excursions, canopy tours and Forest Flyers. Included in the first phase of the plan at Vail Mountain are two challenge ropes courses and zip lines which were completed and operational in the summer of 2013. Additionally, zip lines were completed and operational during Fiscal 2014 at Breckenridge and Heavenly. Smaller scale improvements are planned for Beaver Creek, Keystone and Northstar.

Lodging Segment

Our Lodging segment includes the following operations:
RockResorts -- a luxury hotel management company with a current portfolio of six properties, including four Company-owned hotels and two managed resort properties with locations in Colorado and Jamaica;
Five additional Company-owned hotels, management of the Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa (“Vail Marriott”), Mountain Thunder Lodge, Crystal Peak Lodge, Austria Haus Hotel, Grand Summit Hotel, Silverado Lodge, Sundial Lodge and condominium management operations, which are in and around our mountain resorts in the Colorado, Lake Tahoe and Park City, Utah regions;
Two NPS concessionaire properties - GTLC, a summer destination resort with three resort properties in the Grand Teton National Park, and Headwaters Lodge & Cabins at Flagg Ranch (“Flagg Ranch”) located between Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park; 
CME -- a resort ground transportation company in Colorado; and
Five Company-owned mountain resort golf courses in Colorado, one in Wyoming and one operated in Lake Tahoe, California.

The Lodging segment currently includes approximately 4,900 owned and managed hotel and condominium rooms. Our resort hotels collectively offer a wide range of services to guests.

Our portfolio of owned or managed luxury resort hotels and other hotels and properties currently includes:


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Name
Location
Own/Manage
Rooms    
RockResorts:
 
 
 
The Lodge at Vail
Vail, CO
Own
166*
The Arrabelle at Vail Square
Vail, CO
Own
81*
The Pines Lodge
Beaver Creek, CO
Own
71*
The Osprey at Beaver Creek
Beaver Creek, CO
Own
47*
Half Moon
Rose Hall, Jamaica
Manage
398
One Ski Hill Place
Breckenridge, CO
Manage
61**
 
 
 
 
Other Hotels and Properties:
 
 
 
DoubleTree by Hilton Breckenridge
Breckenridge, CO
Own
208
The Keystone Lodge
Keystone, CO
Own
152
Inn at Keystone
Keystone, CO
Own
103
Village Hotel
Breckenridge, CO
Own
60
Ski Tip Lodge
Keystone, CO
Own
10
Jackson Lake Lodge
Grand Teton Nat’l Pk.,
WY
Concessionaire Contract
385
Colter Bay Village
Grand Teton Nat’l Pk.,
WY
Concessionaire Contract
166
Jenny Lake Lodge
Grand Teton Nat’l Pk.,
WY
Concessionaire Contract
37
Headwaters Lodge & Cabins at Flagg Ranch
Moran, WY
Concessionaire Contract
92
Vail Marriott Mountain Resort & Spa
Vail, CO
Manage
342
Mountain Thunder Lodge
Breckenridge, CO
Manage
90
Crystal Peak Lodge
Breckenridge, CO
Manage
26
The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail
Vail, CO
Manage
45**
Austria Haus Hotel
Vail, CO
Manage
25
Grand Summit Hotel
Park City, UT
Manage
287
Silverado Lodge
Park City, UT
Manage
140
Sundial Lodge
Park City, UT
Manage
110
*Includes individual owner units that are in a rental program managed by us.
**Includes owned and managed whole ownership units that are in a rental program managed by us.

The RockResorts brand was originally created by Laurance S. Rockefeller in 1956 and was purchased by us in December 2001. The RockResorts collection includes luxury hotels influenced by a strong connection to the natural surrounding environment and features award-winning dining, and state-of-the-art RockResorts spas and fitness centers. The properties incorporate the indigenous environment into the guest experience and feature access to a variety of year-round outdoor activities ranging from skiing to golf.

Our lodging strategy seeks to complement and enhance our mountain resort operations through our ownership or management of lodging properties and condominiums in proximity to our mountain resorts and selective management of luxury resorts in premier destination locations.
In addition to our portfolio of owned or managed luxury resort hotels and other hotels and properties, our lodging business also features a Colorado ground transportation company, CME, which represents the first point of contact with many of our guests when they arrive by air to Colorado. CME offers year-round ground transportation from Denver International Airport and Eagle County Airport to the Vail Valley (locations in and around Vail, Beaver Creek, Avon and Edwards), Aspen (locations in and around Aspen and Snowmass) and Summit County (which includes Keystone, Breckenridge, Copper Mountain, Frisco and Silverthorne) for ski and snowboard and other mountain resort experiences. CME offers four primary types of services, including; door-to-door shuttle business, point-to-point shuttle business with centralized drop-off at transportation hubs, private chartered vans and premier luxury charter vehicles. The vehicle fleet consists of approximately 242 vans and luxury SUVs, and transported approximately 377,000 resort guests in Fiscal 2014.

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Lodging Industry/Market

Hotels are categorized by Smith Travel Research, a leading lodging industry research firm, as luxury, upper upscale, upscale, mid-price and economy. The service quality and level of accommodations of our RockResorts' hotels place them in the luxury segment, which represents hotels achieving the highest average daily rates (“ADR”) in the industry, and includes such brands as the Four Seasons, Ritz-Carlton and Starwood's Luxury Collection hotels. Our other hotels are categorized in the upper upscale and upscale segments of the hotel market. The luxury and upper upscale segments consist of approximately 673,000 rooms at approximately 1,900 properties in the United States as of July 2014. For Fiscal 2014, our owned hotels, which include a combination of certain RockResort hotels, as well as other hotels in proximity to our mountain resorts, had an overall ADR of $211.18, a paid occupancy rate of 63.7% and revenue per available room (“RevPAR”) of $134.60, as compared to the upper upscale segment's ADR of $165.47, a paid occupancy rate of 72.9% and RevPAR of $120.68. We believe that this comparison to the upper upscale segment is appropriate as our mix of owned hotels include those in the luxury and upper upscale segments, as well as certain of our hotels that fall in the upscale segment. The highly seasonal nature of our lodging properties generally results in lower average occupancy as compared to the upper upscale segment of the lodging industry.


Competition

Competition in the hotel industry is generally based on quality and consistency of rooms, restaurant and meeting facilities and services, attractiveness of locations, availability of a global distribution system, price and other factors. Our properties compete within their geographic markets with hotels and resorts that include locally owned independent hotels, as well as facilities owned or managed by national and international chains, including such brands as Four Seasons, Hilton, Hyatt, Marriott, Ritz-Carlton, Starwood's Luxury Collection and Westin. Our properties also compete for convention and conference business across the national market. We believe we are highly competitive in the resort hotel niche for the following reasons:

All of our hotels are located in unique highly desirable resort destinations.
Our hotel portfolio has achieved some of the most prestigious hotel designations in the world, including three properties in our portfolio that are currently rated as AAA 4-Diamond.
Many of our hotels (both owned and managed) are designed to provide a look that feels indigenous to their surroundings, enhancing the guest's vacation experience.
Each of our RockResorts hotels provides the same high level of quality and services, while still providing unique characteristics which distinguish the resorts from one another. This appeals to travelers looking for consistency in quality and service offerings together with an experience more unique than typically offered by larger luxury hotel chains, which has resulted in five of our RockResort properties being recognized with the TripAdvisor 2014 Certificate of Excellence.
Many of the hotels in our portfolio provide a wide array of amenities available to the guest such as access to world-class ski and golf resorts, spa and fitness facilities, water sports and a number of other outdoor activities as well as highly acclaimed dining options.
Conference space with the latest technology is available at most of our hotels. In addition, guests at Keystone can use our company-owned Keystone Conference Center, the largest conference facility in the Colorado Rocky Mountain region with more than 100,000 square feet of meeting, exhibit and function space.
We have a central reservations system that leverages off of our mountain resort reservations system and has an online planning and booking platform, offering our guests a seamless and useful way to make reservations at our resorts.
We actively upgrade the quality of the accommodations and amenities available at our hotels through capital improvements. Capital funding for third-party owned properties is provided by the owners of those properties to maintain standards required by our management contracts. Projects completed over the past several years include extensive refurbishments and upgrades to the DoubleTree by Hilton Breckenridge, pool and restaurant (Elway's) upgrades to The Lodge at Vail, guest room renovations at the Keystone Lodge, a restaurant renovation at The Arrabelle at Vail Square and guest room upgrades at The Pines Lodge. Additionally, renovations of guest rooms at The Lodge at Vail are currently underway and are expected to be completed for the 2014/2015 ski season.

National Park Concessionaire Properties

We own GTLC, which is based in the Jackson Hole area in Wyoming and operates within the Grand Teton National Park under a 15-year concessionaire agreement (that expires December 31, 2021) with the NPS. We also own Flagg Ranch, which is located in Moran, Wyoming and is centrally located between Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park on the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway (the "Parkway"), which operates under a 15-year concessionaire agreement (that

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expires October 31, 2026) with the NPS. GTLC also owns Jackson Hole Golf & Tennis Club ("JHG&TC"), which is located outside of the Grand Teton National Park near Jackson, Wyoming. GTLC's operations within the Grand Teton National Park and JHG&TC have operating seasons that generally run from mid-May to mid-October.

There are 401 areas within the National Park System covering approximately 84 million acres across the United States and its territories. Of the 401 areas, 59 are classified as National Parks. While there are more than 600 NPS concessionaires, ranging from small, privately-held businesses to large corporate conglomerates, we primarily compete with such companies as Aramark Parks & Resorts, Delaware North Companies Parks & Resorts, Forever Resorts and Xanterra Parks & Resorts in retaining and obtaining National Park Concessionaire agreements. The NPS uses “recreation visits” to measure visitation within the National Park System. In calendar 2013, areas designated as National Parks received approximately 63.5 million recreation visits. The Grand Teton National Park, which spans approximately 310,000 acres, had approximately 2.7 million recreation visits during calendar 2013, or approximately 4.3% of total National Park recreation visits. Four full service concessionaires provide accommodations within the Grand Teton National Park, including GTLC. GTLC offers three lodging options within the Grand Teton National Park: Jackson Lake Lodge, a full-service, 385-room resort with 17,000 square feet of conference facilities which can accommodate up to 600 people; the Jenny Lake Lodge, a small, rustically elegant retreat with 37 cabins; and Colter Bay Village, a facility with 166 log cabins, 66 tent cabins, 361 campsites and a 112-space RV park. GTLC offers dining options as extensive as its lodging options, with cafeterias, casual eateries and fine dining establishments. GTLC's resorts provide a wide range of activities for guests to enjoy, including cruises on Jackson Lake, boat rentals, horseback riding, guided fishing, float trips, golf and guided Grand Teton National Park tours. As a result of the extensive amenities offered as well as the tremendous popularity of the National Park System, GTLC's accommodations within the Grand Teton National Park operate near full capacity during their operating season.

Flagg Ranch features a range of lodging options from 92 standard, deluxe and premium cabins, to a 97-space RV park and 35 campsites. Flagg Ranch also offers additional amenities including dining, retail and activities for our guests to enjoy, including horseback riding, guided fishing, float trips and guided Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park tours. In addition to these summer offerings, Flagg Ranch provides limited winter operations to support Yellowstone National Park snowmobile tours.

Marketing and Sales

We promote our luxury hotels and lodging properties through marketing and sales programs, which include marketing directly to many of our guests through our digital channels (search, social, and display), promotional programs and print media advertising. We also promote comprehensive vacation experiences through various package offerings and promotions (combining lodging, lift tickets, ski school lessons, ski rental equipment, transportation and dining), all of which are designed to drive traffic to our websites and central reservations call center. Where appropriate, we market our resort properties in conjunction with our mountain resort marketing efforts.  Additionally, our individual hotels have active sales forces to generate conference and group business.

Seasonality

Our lodging business is highly seasonal in nature, with peak seasons primarily in the winter months (with the exception of GTLC, Flagg Ranch, certain managed properties and mountain resort golf operations). We actively promote our extensive conference facilities and have added more off-season activities to help offset the seasonality of our lodging business. We operate seven golf courses: The Beaver Creek Golf Club, The Keystone Ranch Golf Course, The River Course at Keystone, JHG&TC near Jackson, Wyoming, The Northstar Resort Golf Course and the Tom Fazio and Greg Norman courses at Red Sky Ranch near the Beaver Creek Resort. In 2014, The Tom Fazio course at Red Sky Ranch was ranked number 45 out of the Top 100 Resort Courses by Golfweek Magazine, the Greg Norman course at Red Sky Ranch was featured in the Top 200 Courses in the United States by Golfweek Magazine.

Real Estate Segment

We have extensive holdings of real property at our mountain resorts throughout Summit and Eagle Counties in Colorado. Our real estate operations, through Vail Resorts Development Company (“VRDC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary, include planning, oversight, infrastructure improvement, development, marketing and sale of our real property holdings. In addition to the cash flow generated from real estate development sales, these development activities benefit our Mountain and Lodging segments by (1) creating additional resort lodging and other resort related facilities and venues (primarily restaurants, spas, commercial

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space, private mountain clubs, skier services facilities and parking structures) that provide us with the opportunity to create new sources of recurring revenue, enhance the guest experience and expand our destination bed base; (2) controlling the architectural themes of our resorts; and (3) expanding our property management and commercial leasing operations.

Currently, VRDC's principal activities include the marketing and selling of remaining condominium units that are available for sale, which primarily relate to The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail, and One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge; planning for future real estate development projects, including zoning and acquisition of applicable permits; and the occasional purchase of selected strategic land parcels for future development as well as the sale of land parcels to third-party developers. Although we continue to undertake preliminary planning and design work on future projects, we currently do not plan to undertake significant development activities on new projects until the current economic environment for real estate improves. We believe that, due to our low carrying cost of real estate land investments combined with the absence of third party debt associated with our real estate investments, we are well situated to evaluate the launch of future projects with a more favorable economic environment.

Our completed projects include The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail, One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge, the Arrabelle at Vail Square, Vail's Front Door, Crystal Peak Lodge at Breckenridge, and Gore Creek Place in Vail's Lionshead Village. We attempt to mitigate the risk associated with vertical development by utilizing guaranteed maximum price construction contracts (although certain construction costs may not be covered by contractual limitations), pre-selling a portion of the project, requiring significant non-refundable deposits from buyers, and potentially obtaining non-recourse financing for certain projects (although our last two major vertical development projects have not incurred any direct third party financing).

Employees

At fiscal year end, through certain operating subsidiaries, we employed approximately 4,700 year-round employees and during the height of our operating season we employ approximately 17,900 seasonal employees. In addition, we employ approximately 300 year-round employees and 100 seasonal employees on behalf of the owners of our managed hotel properties. We consider employee relations to be good.

Intellectual Property

The development of intellectual property is part of our overall business strategy, and we regard our intellectual property as an important element of our success. We seek to establish and maintain our proprietary rights in our business operations and technology through the use of trademarks and trade secret laws. We file applications for and obtain trademarks, copyrights and patents in the United States. We also seek to maintain our trade secrets and confidential information by nondisclosure policies and through the use of appropriate confidentiality agreements.

In the highly competitive industry in which we operate, trademarks, service marks, trade names and logos are very important in the sales and marketing of our mountain resorts and urban ski areas, lodging properties and services. We have a significant number of trademarks, service marks, trade names, logos and pending registrations, and seek to register and protect our trademarks, service marks, trade names and logos, which we believe have become synonymous in the travel and leisure industry with a reputation for excellence in service and authentic hospitality.

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Regulation and Legislation

Federal Regulation

The 1986 Ski Area Permit Act (the “1986 Act”) allows the USDA Forest Service (the “Forest Service”) to grant Term Special Use Permits (each, a “SUP”) for the operation of ski areas and construction of related facilities on National Forest lands. In addition, the 1986 Act requires a Master Development Plan ("MDP") for each ski area that is granted a SUP. In November 2011, the 1986 Act was amended by the Ski Area Recreational Opportunity Enhancement Act (the “Enhancement Act”) to clarify the Forest Service's authority to approve facilities primarily for year-round recreation.

Each distinct area of National Forest lands is required by the National Forest Management Act to develop and maintain a Land and Resource Management Plan (a “Forest Plan”), which establishes standards and guidelines for the Forest Service to follow and consider in reviewing and approving our proposed actions.

Under the 1986 Act, the Forest Service has the right to review and approve the location, design and construction of improvements in the permit area and many operational matters. Virtually all of the skiable terrain at Vail Mountain, Breckenridge, Heavenly, Keystone, and Kirkwood is located on Forest Service land. While Beaver Creek also operates on Forest Service land, a significant portion of the skiable terrain, primarily in the lower main mountain, Western Hillside, Bachelor Gulch and Arrowhead Mountain areas, is located on land that we own. Each of these six ski resorts operates under a SUP.

The operations of Northstar, Afton Alps, Mt. Brighton and Canyons are conducted primarily on private land, and do not require a SUP.

Special Use Permits

Vail Mountain operates under a SUP for the use of 12,353 acres that expires December 1, 2031. Breckenridge operates under a SUP for the use of 5,702 acres that expires December 31, 2029. Keystone operates under a SUP for the use of 8,376 acres that expires December 31, 2032. Beaver Creek operates under a SUP for the use of 3,849 acres that expires November 8, 2039. Heavenly operates under a SUP for the use of 7,050 acres that expires May 1, 2042. Kirkwood operates under a SUP for the use of approximately 2,330 acres that expires March 1, 2052. We anticipate requesting a new SUP for each resort prior to the expiration date identified above as provided by the Forest Service regulations and the terms of each existing SUP. We are not aware of the Forest Service refusing to issue a new SUP to replace an expiring SUP for a ski resort in operation at the time of expiration.

Each SUP contains a number of requirements, including that we indemnify the Forest Service from third-party claims arising out of our operation under the SUP and that we comply with applicable laws, such as those relating to water quality and endangered or threatened species.

For use of the SUPs, we pay a fee to the Forest Service ranging from 1.5% to 4.0% of sales for services occurring on Forest Service land. Included in the calculation are sales from, among other things, lift tickets, season passes, ski school lessons, food and beverages, equipment rentals and retail merchandise.

The SUPs may be amended by us or by the Forest Service to change the permit area or permitted uses. The Forest Service may amend a SUP, if it determines that such amendment is in the public interest. While the Forest Service is required to seek the permit holder's consent to any amendment, an amendment can be finalized over a permit holder's objection. Permit amendments must be consistent with the Forest Plan and are subject to the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”), both of which are discussed below.

The Forest Service can also terminate a SUP if it determines that termination is required in the public interest. However, to our knowledge, no SUP has ever been terminated by the Forest Service over the opposition of the permittee.

Master Development Plans

All improvements that we propose to make on National Forest System lands under any of our SUPs must be included in a MDP. MDPs describe the existing and proposed facilities, developments and area of activity within the permit area. We prepare MDPs, which set forth a conceptual overview of all potential projects at each resort. The MDPs are reviewed by the Forest Service for compliance with the Forest Plan and other applicable law and, if found to be compliant, are accepted by the Forest Service. Notwithstanding acceptance by the Forest Service of the conceptual MDPs, individual projects still require

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separate applications and compliance with NEPA and other applicable laws before the Forest Service will approve such projects. We update or amend our MDPs for Vail Mountain, Beaver Creek, Keystone, Breckenridge, Heavenly, and Kirkwood from time to time.

Forest Plans

Operational and development activities on National Forest System lands at our four Colorado mountain resorts are subject to the additional regulatory and planning requirements set forth in the April 2002 Record of Decision (the “2002 ROD”) for the White River National Forest Land and Resources Management Plan (the “White River Forest Plan”). At Heavenly, operational and development activities on National Forest System lands are subject to the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit Land and Resources Management Plan (the “Lake Tahoe Forest Plan”), which was adopted in 1988. The Forest Service is currently in the process of amending the Lake Tahoe Forest Plan. A draft decision adopting a new Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit Forest Plan has been released and the Forest Service is working through a formal objection process before finalizing the new Forest Plan, which we expect will occur before the end of 2014. At Kirkwood, operational and development activities on National Forest System lands are subject to the Eldorado National Forest Land and Resources Management Plan (the “Eldorado Forest Plan”), which was adopted in 1989.

When approving our application for development, area expansion and other activities on National Forest System lands, the Forest Service must adhere to the applicable Forest Plan. Any such decision may be subject to judicial review in Federal court if a party, with standing, challenges a Forest Service decision that applies the requirements of a Forest Plan at one of our six National Forest System lands mountain resorts.

National Environmental Policy Act; California Environmental Quality Act

NEPA requires an assessment of the environmental impacts of “major” proposed actions on National Forest land, such as expansion of a ski area, installation of new lifts or snowmaking facilities, or construction of new trails or buildings. We must comply with NEPA when seeking Forest Service approval of such improvements. The Forest Service is responsible for preparing and compiling the required environmental studies, usually through third-party consultants. NEPA allows for different types of environmental studies, depending on, among other factors, the scope and size of the expected impact of the proposed project. An Environmental Assessment (“EA”) is typically used for projects where the environmental impacts are expected to be limited. For projects with more significant expected impacts, an Environmental Impact Statement (“EIS”) is more commonly required. An EIS is more detailed and broader in scope than an EA. The Forest Service usually takes more time to prepare, review and issue an EIS. Consequently, projects that require an EIS typically take longer to approve.
During the requisite environmental study, the Forest Service is required to analyze alternatives to the proposed action (including not taking the proposed action) as well as impacts that may be unavoidable. Following completion of the requisite environmental study, the Forest Service may decide not to approve the proposed action or may decide to approve an alternative. In either case we may be forced to abandon or alter our development or expansion plans.
In limited cases, projects can be subject to a Categorical Exclusion, which allows approval by the Forest Service without preparation of an environmental study required by NEPA. The Forest Service has a list of available Categorical Exclusions, which typically are only available for projects that are not expected to have environmental impacts, such as certain utilities installed in an existing, previously disturbed corridor.
Proposed actions at Heavenly, Kirkwood and Northstar may also be subject to the California Environmental Quality Act (“CEQA”), which is similar to NEPA in that it requires the California governmental entity approving any proposed action at Kirkwood, Northstar, or on the California portion of Heavenly to study potential environmental impacts. Projects with significant expected impacts require an Environmental Impact Report (“EIR”) while more limited projects may be approved based on a Mitigated Negative Declaration.

Local Land Use Regulations

In addition to Federal and environmental regulations, each resort is subject to and must comply with state, county, regional and local government land use regulations and restrictions, including, for example, employee housing ordinances, zoning and density restrictions, noise ordinances, wildlife regulations, and water and air quality restrictions. Specific land use regulations for each resort are discussed in more detail in the following sections.

Breckenridge Regulatory Matters


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We submitted an updated MDP for Breckenridge, which was accepted by the Forest Service in January 2008. The MDP was updated to include, among other things, additional skiable area, snowmaking and lift improvements. In March 2013 we submitted an addendum to the MDP to address our conceptual plans for the addition of year-round improvements, approved by the Enhancement Act. This addendum was accepted in June 2013. A project proposal for, among other things, summer and year-round activities was tentatively accepted by the Forest Service in June 2013.

On August 21, 2012, we received Forest Service approval, in the form of a Record of Decision, of our proposal to develop a portion of Peak 6, which adjoins the Breckenridge Ski Area to the north. A subsequent administrative appeal affirmed the Forest Service's approval. The project was initially proposed in January 2008 and was under Forest Service review from then until approval in August 2012. Construction on the Peak 6 development was completed before the 2013/2014 ski season and the terrain was open to the public on December 25, 2013.

In March 2014, we received approval from the Forest Service to replace the Colorado Super Chair with a six-person chairlift.  As this chairlift is located on both National Forest System lands and private lands within the Town of Breckenridge, approval was pursuant to a Forest Service Categorical Exclusion and Class C permit from the Town of Breckenridge. Work started June 2014 and is scheduled to be completed for the 2014/2015 ski season.

Keystone Regulatory Matters

In September 2009, the Forest Service accepted the updated Keystone MDP which contemplates, among other things, ski area expansion, construction of new lifts, trails and snowmaking systems, and construction or redevelopment of skier buildings and other facilities. In March 2013 we submitted an addendum to the MDP to address our conceptual plans for the addition of year-round improvements, approved by the Enhancement Act, which was conditionally accepted by the Forest Service in early June 2013. Final acceptance is anticipated by the end of 2014.

We submitted to the Forest Service an amended project proposal under the updated Keystone MDP in June 2011. The project proposal focuses primarily on the “front side” of the mountain and includes new mountain bike trails, terrain modifications, lift improvements, skier service facilities, dining facilities and infrastructure improvements. The Forest Service finalized the Environmental Assessment and issued a decision notice approving a revised list of projects in April 2014.

Vail Mountain Regulatory Matters

In September 2007, the updated Vail Mountain MDP was accepted by the Forest Service. The Vail Mountain MDP includes, among other things, additional snowmaking on Vail Mountain, additional lifts, a race facility expansion at Vail's Golden Peak, and the addition of year-round activities and improvements.

In March 2006, the Forest Service approved a proposal to construct a chairlift to service existing and potential future residential and commercial development in the proposed Ever Vail area. However, since receiving approval, we have modified the plans for the chairlift and have requested approval from the Forest Service of the modified plans. We do not know when, or if, we will receive such approval.

In July 2012, we submitted to the Forest Service a project proposal under a Categorical Exclusion for construction of capital projects under our Epic Discovery plan. Two challenge ropes courses and zip lines were approved and construction was completed in August 2013. A kid’s zip line and kid’s challenge course were also approved and construction was complete in July 2014.

In addition, in July 2012 we submitted a project proposal to the Forest Service to develop a larger, more comprehensive program of summer activities and environmental education opportunities, including horse, bike and hiking trails, a new deck at Eagles Nest, two canopy tours, two lookout towers, and two “Forest Flyers”. The Forest Service is currently preparing an EIS analyzing the proposal. We anticipate a decision by fall of 2014.

In December 2012, we submitted a proposal to the Forest Service for the replacement of Chair 4 with a high speed detachable six-person chairlift, which was accepted and approved by the Forest Service. The lift was built during summer 2013 and was operational for the 2013/2014 ski season.

In June 2014, a proposal to expand racing and training terrain on Golden Peak was submitted to the Forest Service. We expect the Forest Service to accept the proposal for NEPA review by fall of 2014.

Beaver Creek Regulatory Matters

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The Beaver Creek MDP was accepted by the Forest Service in October 2010. Included in the submitted Beaver Creek MDP, among other things, was certain chairlift and snowmaking upgrades and adjustments to visitor capacity parameters in light of prior lift and trail upgrades contemplated in the MDP.

Also in October 2010, we submitted a project proposal for ski area upgrades required in connection with the 2015 FIS World Alpine Ski Championships, to be held in Beaver Creek and Vail Mountain. Upgrades include trail widening and grading, new finish arena facilities, replacement of Red Tail Camp, snowmaking and related infrastructure. The proposal was accepted by the Forest Service, which completed an EIS in May 2012 and issued a Record of Decision approving the project as proposed in early July 2012. Trail construction, widening and snowmaking were completed in 2012. Construction of Red Tail Camp and a new restaurant water tank and system was completed and operational for the 2013/2014 ski season.

We are currently evaluating a proposal to locate summer activities including a Forest Flyer on Forest Service land in the area around Spruce Saddle, which would require Forest Service review and approval. We plan to submit an amendment to our MDP by fall 2014 that would contemplate year-round activities on Beaver Creek.

In May 2014, the Forest Service approved, under a NEPA Categorical Exclusion, the replacement of the Centennial Express Lift with a combination 6-passenger chairlift that also has 10-passenger gondola cabins. Construction is underway and we expect to operate the lift for the 2014/2015 ski season.


Northstar Regulatory Matters

Northstar is located entirely on private land leased by us and is not subject to Forest Service authorization or oversight. However, site specific projects at Northstar are approved by Placer County, California, pursuant to a series of minor use and conditional use permits.

In February 2009, Northstar adopted a Habitat Management Plan (the “HMP”), in part to comply with its obligations under a Settlement Agreement with regional conservation groups entered into in 2005. The HMP provides a framework for habitat and resource management for future development of the Northstar ski area and base area. The HMP was updated in 2014 to reflect updated monitoring information gathered since 2009 and changes in on the ground conditions.

In 2012, Northstar requested Placer County approval of the Northstar Mountain Master Plan (the “NMMP”) and is pursuing CEQA approval through an Environmental Impact Review process, which provides site specific and programmatic review of potential future resort improvement projects. Northstar has requested a continuance of final review and action on the NMMP in order to provide adequate time to thoroughly review the Final EIR, staff-proposed conditions of plan approval, and the project record.
    
In May 2013, Northstar received approval from Placer County to construct a Forest Flyer near the mid-mountain lodge. The approval has been appealed and an appeal hearing was scheduled for late July 2013. Northstar has requested a continuance of the appeal hearing in order to more fully understand and respond to the issues raised.


Heavenly Regulatory Matters

In September 2012 we submitted a project proposal to the Forest Service and in November 2012, we submitted the same project proposal to the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency ("TRPA") for additional summer activities to be located at the top of the gondola. In December 2012 and April 2013, those activities were approved for implementation by the TRPA and the Forest Service, respectively. Subsequently, we received approval for a large, monolithic climbing wall following implementation of the Forest Service regulations which occurred in 2014.

In June 2013, Heavenly submitted a project proposal to the Forest Service and TRPA to develop a larger, more comprehensive program of summer activities and environmental education opportunities on the upper mountain, which includes canopy tours, hiking and biking trails, Forest Flyers and zip lines, known as Epic Discovery. The proposal was slightly modified and resubmitted in September 2013. The Epic Discovery proposal is being analyzed using a focused EIS which is expected to take between 18 and 24 months to complete from the June 2013 submittal date.

In November 2013, the Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (“LTBMU”) issued a draft record of decision and Final EIS for amendments to the LTBMU Forest Plan. A large portion of Heavenly is located within the LTBMU. Elements of

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the amended Forest Plan may have an adverse impact on future development opportunities at Heavenly. In January 2014, Heavenly submitted objections to the amended Forest Plan. In May 2014 and July 2014, Heavenly attended formal Objection Resolution hearings with the Forest Service and other objectors. We continue to work with the Forest Service to resolve its objections and expect the Forest Service to make a final decision regarding our objections before the end of 2014.


Kirkwood Regulatory Matters

In April 2012, we acquired Kirkwood, which is located in Alpine, Amador and El Dorado Counties, California. Kirkwood has an approved specific plan from Alpine and Amador Counties for the private land base areas and an accepted MDP from the El Dorado National Forest for the National Forest land portions of the resort.

In January 2013, we submitted a project proposal to the Forest Service that included replacement of Chair 4, ski run modifications, development of a new ski patrol building at the top of Chair 10 and the installation of new remote Epic Mix gantries.  Of the activities proposed, the new patrol building was constructed in 2013 along with one of the Epic Mix gantries.  The other improvements may be made in the future.


Afton Alps Regulatory Matters

In December 2012, we acquired Afton Alps ski area, located in Washington County, Minnesota. Afton Alps operates as a Planned Unit Development pursuant to a Conditional Use Permit which was most recently approved by Denmark Township on November 5, 2012, and Washington County on January 30, 2013. The ski area is also located within the South Washington Watershed District, which monitors wetlands, water quality, runoff and other watershed issues within the area.

In June and July 2013, Afton Alps received approval from the county, Denmark Township, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the South Washington Watershed District for the grading and fill placement of an expanded irrigation reservoir for snowmaking and golf facilities. Approvals include the expansion of the existing reservoir, a new pumping station and fill placement on existing runs and parking lots. Improvements were completed in the fall of 2013 and were operational for the 2013/2014 ski season.


Mt. Brighton Regulatory Matters

In December 2012, we acquired Mt. Brighton ski area in Livingston County, Michigan. Mt. Brighton is located within Genoa Township, Michigan, and is subject to the Genoa Township Zoning Ordinance. The ski area is located within a Public and Recreational Facilities District and operates pursuant to a Special Land Use Permit and various other state and local permits.

In April and May 2013, we submitted an application for site plan improvements and an Environmental Impact Assessment to Genoa Township. Approval was received from the Planning Commission and from the Township Board in May 2013. The improvements include the installation of two new lifts, relocation of two lifts, trail grading and shaping, storm water improvements, new septic system, and snowmaking improvements, including new piping, guns and pump station and enhanced slope lighting.

We also received approval and completed the project to fill a portion of an existing golf course pond in order to expand the ski race arena finish area. Improvements were completed in the fall of 2013 and were operational for the 2013/2014 ski season.


Canyons Regulatory Matters

In May 2013, we entered into a long-term lease to operate Canyons, located in Summit County, Utah. The resort is part of the Canyons Specially Planned Area (“SPA”) pursuant to a county ordinance adopted in 1998, and a Development Agreement and Master Development Plan with affected property owners, developers and the county, the most recent versions of which were adopted in 1999. Land use within the SPA is within the jurisdiction of Summit County.

In June 2014, Canyons submitted an application for a low impact permit seeking approval of a new pump house in Willow Draw. Approval of the new pumphouse was granted in July 2014. The new pumphouse will be operational for the 2014/2015 ski season.


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We are constructing a new permanent restaurant on mountain, known as Cloud Dine Restaurant. The new restaurant incorporates an existing permanent kitchen and restrooms and will replace a temporary membrane structure previously used for seating. A conditional use permit for Cloud Dine construction was approved by Summit County on February 25, 2014. The restaurant is scheduled to be completed for the 2014/2015 ski season.


GTLC Concession Contract

GTLC operates three lodging properties, food and beverage services, retail, camping and other services within the Grand Teton National Park under a concession contract with the NPS. Our concession contract with the NPS for GTLC expires on December 31, 2021. Upon expiration of the concession contract, we will have to bid against other prospective concessionaires for award of a new contract.

The NPS may suspend operations under the concession contract at any time if the NPS determines it is necessary to protect visitors or resources within the National Park and during a Federal Government shutdown. NPS also has the right to terminate the contract for breach, following notice and a 15 day cure period or if it believes termination is necessary to protect visitors or resources within the National Park.

We pay a fee of 8.01% to the NPS on the majority of our sales occurring in the Grand Teton National Park.

Flagg Ranch Concession Contract

In August of 2011, the NPS selected Flagg Ranch Company, a wholly owned subsidiary, to provide lodging, food and beverage services, retail, service station, recreation and other services on the Parkway located between Grand Teton National Park and Yellowstone National Park. Our concession contract with the NPS for the Parkway expires on October 31, 2026. Upon expiration of the concession contract, we will have to bid against other prospective concessionaires for award of a new contract.

Like our GTLC concession contract, the NPS may suspend operations under the concession contract at any time if the NPS determines it is necessary to protect visitors or resources within the National Park and during a Federal Government shutdown. NPS may also terminate the contract for breach, following notice and a 15 day cure period or if it believes termination is necessary to protect visitors or resources within the National Park.

We pay a fee of 5.3% to the NPS on the majority of our sales occurring in the Parkway.

Water and Snowmaking

We rely on a supply of water for operation of our ski areas for domestic and snowmaking purposes and for real estate development. Availability of water depends on existence of adequate water rights as well as physical delivery of the water when and where it is needed.

To provide a level of predictability in dates of operation and favorable snow surface conditions at our ski areas, we rely on snowmaking. Snowmaking requires a significant volume of water, most of which is viewed as a non-consumptive use - approximately 80% of the water is returned to the watershed at spring runoff.

In Colorado, we own or have ownership interests in water rights in reservoir companies, reservoirs, groundwater wells, and other sources. The primary source of water for Keystone and Breckenridge is the Clinton Reservoir, in which we own a non-controlling interest. For Vail Mountain and Beaver Creek, the primary water source is Eagle Park Reservoir, in which we own a controlling interest. We believe we have rights to sufficient quantities of water for the operation of our four Colorado resorts for the foreseeable future.

Delivery of the water to each resort is typically by stream, from which the water is diverted by us to on-site storage facilities or directly into the snowmaking system. The streams that deliver the water are subject to minimum stream flows, freezing and other limitations that may prevent or reduce the amount of water physically available to the resort.

Unlike our other Colorado resorts, Keystone does not have on-site storage for snowmaking water and may be more vulnerable to interruptions in delivery of constant physical supply of water during high demand snowmaking periods. Although we have not experienced significant issues to date, we continue to look for ways to improve storage and delivery options for Keystone.


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Heavenly's primary sources of water are the South Tahoe Public Utility District (“STPUD”) and Kingsbury General Improvement District (“KGID”), which are California and Nevada utilities, respectively. These sources are augmented by an on-mountain underground well that is located adjacent to the East Peak Lake snowmaking reservoir. We have negotiated a long term contract with STPUD, which includes favorable rates upon our completion of certain water delivery system improvements. Despite the added security provided by this agreement, the delivery of water by STPUD is interruptible. If STPUD exercises its rights to interrupt Heavenly's water service, Heavenly's ability to make snow may be impaired. In 2012, KGID adopted a new water rate schedule that accounts for Heavenly as a large, seasonal water customer. The new rate schedule, which was based on a cost of service analysis study prepared by an outside consulting firm, has resulted in lowered water rate costs for Heavenly's snowmaking operations. Further, the delivery systems of each utility are limited and may not be able to provide the immediate physical supply of water needed for optimal snowmaking. In addition, a separate contract now provides for delivery by KGID to Heavenly of Lake Tahoe water owned by Heavenly via KGID’s water infrastructure. Heavenly pays the same rates for this water as for KGID contract water.

Northstar obtains water through a cooperative arrangement with the Northstar Community Services District (“NCSD”). Together with NCSD, we, through our lease with affiliates of CNL Lifestyles Properties, Inc., control surface water rights that we use for snowmaking. In addition, we have contractual rights to ground water from NCSD and from the adjacent Martis Camp residential development. We receive domestic water from NCSD and, for on-mountain facilities, from on-mountain wells and a series of significant near-surface springs.

Kirkwood co-owns with the Forest Service surface water rights sufficient for current and planned snowmaking at the resort. Kirkwood's water is stored in nearby Caples Lake under contract with its owner/operator.

Canyons receives water for snowmaking primarily from Summit Water Distribution Company pursuant to a long-term lease. Canyons' water is stored in a retention pond located at the resort, and at facilities owned or operated by Summit Water Distribution Company.

Both Afton Alps and Mt. Brighton rely on on-site water wells and reservoirs for snowmaking water.


Available Information

We file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) reports, including our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These reports are available free of charge on our corporate website (www.vailresorts.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Reports filed with the SEC are also made available on its website at www.sec.gov. Copies of any materials we file with the SEC can be obtained at www.sec.gov or at the SEC's public reference room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the public reference room is available by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

 
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS.

Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. The risks described below should carefully be considered together with the other information contained in this report.
 
Risks Related to Our Business
We are subject to the risk of prolonged weakness in general economic conditions including adverse effects on the overall travel and leisure related industries. Economic conditions currently present or recently present in the United States, Europe and parts of the rest of the world, including high unemployment, erosion of consumer confidence, sovereign debt issues, and financial instability in the global markets, may potentially have negative effects on the travel and leisure industry and on our results of operations. As a result of these and other economic uncertainties, we have experienced and may experience in the future, among other items, a change in booking trends such that guest reservations are made much closer to the actual date of stay, a decrease in the length of stay and a decrease in group bookings. We cannot predict what impact these uncertainties may have on overall travel and leisure or more specifically, on our guest visitation, guest spending or other related trends and the ultimate impact it will have on our future results of operations. The actual or perceived fear of weakness in the economy could also lead to decreased spending by our guests. Skiing, travel and tourism are discretionary recreational activities that can entail a relatively high cost of participation and are adversely affected by economic slowdown or recession. This could further be

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exacerbated by the fact that we charge some of the highest prices for our lift tickets and ancillary services in the ski industry. In the event of a decrease in visitation and overall guest spending we may be required to offer a higher amount of discounts and incentives than we have historically, which would adversely impact our operating results.

We are vulnerable to the risk of unfavorable weather conditions and the impact of natural disasters. Our ability to attract guests to our resorts is influenced by weather conditions and by the amount and timing of snowfall during the ski season. Unfavorable weather conditions can adversely affect skier visits and our revenue and profits. Unseasonably warm weather may result in inadequate natural snowfall and reduce skiable terrain which increases the cost of snowmaking and could render snowmaking wholly or partially ineffective in maintaining quality skiing conditions, including in areas which are not accessible by snowmaking equipment. In addition, a severe and prolonged drought could affect our otherwise adequate snowmaking water supplies or increase the cost of snowmaking. Excessive natural snowfall may materially increase the costs incurred for grooming trails and may also make it difficult for guests to obtain access to our mountain resorts. In the past 20 years, our mountain resorts have averaged between 20 and 39 feet of annual snowfall which is significantly in excess of the average for United States ski resorts. However, there can be no certainty that our resorts will receive seasonal snowfalls near their historical average in the future, and in fact, during the recent 2013/2014 ski season we experienced very poor conditions in the Lake Tahoe region and for the 2011/2012 ski season we experienced historic low snowfall across all our resorts. Past snowfall levels or consistency of snow conditions can impact the levels of sales of season passes. Additionally, the early season snow conditions and skier perceptions of early season snow conditions influence the momentum and success of the overall ski season. Unfavorable weather conditions can adversely affect our resorts and lodging properties as guests tend to delay or postpone vacations if conditions differ from those that typically prevail at such resorts for a given season. There is no way for us to predict future weather patterns or the impact that weather patterns may have on our results of operations or visitation.

A severe natural disaster, such as a forest fire, may interrupt our operations, damage our properties, reduce the number of guests who visit our resorts in affected areas and negatively impact our revenue and profitability. Damage to our properties could take a long time to repair and there is no guarantee that we would have adequate insurance to cover the costs of repair and recoup lost profits. Furthermore, such a disaster may interrupt or impede access to our affected properties or require evacuations and may cause visits to our affected properties to decrease for an indefinite period. The ability to attract visitors to our resorts is also influenced by the aesthetics and natural beauty of the outdoor environment where our resorts are located. A severe forest fire or other severe impacts from naturally occurring events could negatively impact the natural beauty of our resorts and have a long-term negative impact on our overall guest visitation as it would take several years for the environment to recover.

Leisure and business travel are particularly susceptible to various factors outside of our control, including terrorism, the uncertainty of military conflicts, outbreaks of contagious diseases and the cost and availability of travel options. Our business is sensitive to the willingness of our guests to travel. Acts of terrorism, the spread of contagious diseases, political events and developments in military conflicts in areas of the world from which we draw our guests could depress the public's propensity to travel and cause severe disruptions in both domestic and international air travel and consumer discretionary spending, which could reduce the number of visitors to our resorts and have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Many of our guests travel by air and the impact of higher prices for commercial airline services and availability of air services could cause a decrease in visitation by Destination guests to our resorts. Also, many of our guests travel by vehicle and higher gasoline prices could adversely impact our guests' willingness to travel to our resorts. Higher cost of travel may also affect the amount that guests are willing to spend at our resorts and could negatively impact our revenue particularly for lodging, ski school, dining and retail/rental.

Our business is highly seasonal. Our mountain and lodging operations are highly seasonal in nature. In particular, revenue and profits from our mountain and most of our lodging operations are substantially lower and historically result in losses from late spring to late fall. Conversely, peak operating seasons for GTLC and Flagg Ranch and our golf courses occur during the summer months while the winter season generally results in operating losses. Revenue and profits generated by GTLC and Flagg Ranch's summer operations and golf operations are not nearly sufficient to fully offset our off-season losses from our mountain and other lodging operations. For Fiscal 2014, 81% of total combined Mountain and Lodging segment net revenue (excluding Lodging segment revenue associated with reimbursement of payroll costs) was earned during our second and third fiscal quarters. This seasonality is partially mitigated by the sale of season passes (which for the 2013/2014 ski season accounted for approximately 40% of the total lift revenue) predominately during the period prior to the start of the ski season as the cash from those sales is collected in advance and revenue is recognized in the second and third quarters. In addition, the timing of major holidays can impact vacation patterns and therefore visitation at our mountain resorts and urban ski areas. If we were to experience an adverse event or realize a significant deterioration in our operating results during our peak periods (our fiscal second and third quarters) we would be unable to fully recover any significant declines due to the seasonality of our business. Operating results for any three-month period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved for any

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subsequent quarter or for a full fiscal year (see Note 14, Selected Quarterly Financial Data, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).

In the fall of 2011, the Ski Area Recreational Opportunity Enhancement Act was enacted into law which clarifies that the Forest Service is authorized to permit year-round recreational activities on land owned by the Forest Service. As such, this will allow our mountain resorts on Forest Service land to offer more summer-season recreational opportunities. In the summer of 2013, we started construction on the first phase of comprehensive summer activities and we are in various phases of project construction and stages of approval. The projects include a number of new activities, including among other activities, zip lines, challenge ropes courses, climbing walls, mountain excursions and Forest Flyers. The first phase of improvements at Vail Mountain which includes two challenge ropes courses and zip lines were completed and operational beginning in the summer of 2013. Additionally, zip lines were completed and operational during Fiscal 2014 at Breckenridge and Heavenly. We anticipate that if our proposed plans are approved and implemented, that once these summer activities mature, we could realize substantial incremental summer guest visitation and revenue. However, our new summer activities plan may not generate the initial projected revenue and profit margins we expect, and even if our plans are successful, we do not expect that these enhanced summer operations will fully mitigate the seasonal losses that our mountain operations experience from late spring to late fall.
We face significant competition. The ski resort and lodging industries are highly competitive. The number of people who ski in the United States (as measured in skier visits) has generally ranged between 51 million and 61 million annually over the last decade, with approximately 56.5 million visits for the 2013/2014 ski season. The factors that we believe are important to customers include:

proximity to population centers;
availability and cost of transportation to ski areas;
ease of travel to ski areas (including direct flights by major airlines);
pricing of lift tickets and/or season passes and the magnitude, quality and price of related ancillary services (ski school, dining and retail/rental), amenities and lodging;
snowmaking facilities;
type and quality of skiing and snowboarding offered;
duration of the ski season;
weather conditions; and
reputation.

We have many competitors for our guests, including other major resorts in Colorado, California, Nevada, Utah, the Pacific Northwest and Southwest and other major destination ski areas worldwide. Our guests can choose from any of these alternatives, as well as non-skiing vacation options and destinations around the world. In addition, other forms of leisure such as sporting events and participation in other competing indoor and outdoor recreational activities are available to potential guests.

RockResorts hotels, our other hotels and our property management business compete with numerous other hotel and property management companies that may have greater financial resources than we do and they may be able to adapt more quickly to changes in customer requirements or devote greater resources to promotion of their offerings than us. We believe that developing and maintaining a competitive advantage will require us to make continued capital investments in our resorts. We cannot assure that we will have sufficient resources to make the necessary capital investments to do so, and we cannot assure that we will be able to compete successfully in this market or against such competitors.

The high fixed cost structure of mountain resort operations can result in significantly lower margins if revenues decline. The cost structure of our mountain resort operations has a significant fixed component with variable expenses including, but not limited to, Forest Service fees, other resort related fees, credit card fees, retail/rental cost of sales and labor, ski school labor and dining operations. Any material declines in the economy, elevated geopolitical uncertainties and/or significant changes in historical snowfall patterns, as well as other risk factors discussed herein could adversely affect revenue. As such, our margins, profits and cash flows may be materially reduced due to declines in revenue given our relatively high fixed cost structure. In addition, increases in wages and other labor costs, energy, healthcare, insurance, transportation and fuel, property taxes, minimum lease payments and other expenses included in our fixed cost structure may also reduce our margin, profits and cash flows.

Our current or future real estate development projects might not be successful. We have completed significant real estate development projects and have preliminary plans for significant future development projects. We could experience significant

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difficulties in realizing the anticipated financial benefits on completed projects or in initiating or completing future projects, due to among other things:

deterioration in real estate markets;
difficulty in selling units or the ability of buyers to obtain necessary funds to close on units;
escalation in construction costs due to price increases in commodities, unforeseen conditions, inadequate design or drawings, or other causes;
work stoppages;
weather interferences;
shortages in obtaining materials;
difficulty in financing real estate development projects;
difficulty in receiving the necessary regulatory approvals;
difficulty in obtaining qualified contractors or subcontractors; and
unanticipated incremental remediation and litigation costs related to design and construction issues.

Our real estate development projects are designed to make our resorts attractive to our guests and to maintain competitiveness. If these projects are not successful, in addition to not realizing intended profits from the real estate developments, our guests may choose to go to other resorts that they perceive have better amenities.

There are significant risks associated with our recently completed real estate projects, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or anticipated cash inflows from these projects as we have units remaining that have not been sold.  For example, in the event that the carrying cost of the remaining units available for sale exceeds anticipated future proceeds from the sale of these units, we would be required to record an impairment charge.  During fiscal 2011, we completed The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail and in fiscal 2010 we completed One Ski Hill Place at the base of our Breckenridge mountain resort, of which 32 units with a carrying cost of $54.1 million remain to be sold for both projects as of July 31, 2014.  We have risk associated with selling and closing units in these projects as a result of the continued instability in the residential real estate credit markets and in the overall real estate market and, as a result we may not be able to sell units for a profit or at the prices or selling pace we anticipate.  Furthermore, given the current real estate market, certain potential buyers may be unable to purchase units in part due to a reduction in funds available and/or decreases in mortgage availability.

We may not be able to fund resort capital expenditures. We anticipate that resort capital expenditures will be approximately $85 million to $95 million for calendar year 2014 which includes approximately $5 million of capital expenditures for summer-related activities. We anticipate our future annual capital expenditures to be approximately $85 million, in addition to adjustments for inflation, the growth in our resorts and acquisitions, including the recent acquisition of PCMR on September 11, 2014. This amount excludes any investment we plan to make in our Epic Discovery and summer related projects, which are subject to regulatory approval. Our ability to fund capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from operations and/or to borrow from third parties in the debt or equity markets. We cannot provide assurances that our operations will be able to generate sufficient cash flow to fund such costs, or that we will be able to obtain sufficient financing on adequate terms, or at all. Our ability to generate cash flow and to obtain third-party financing will depend upon many factors, including:

our future operating performance;
general economic conditions and economic conditions affecting the resort industry, the ski industry and the general capital markets;
competition; and
legislative and regulatory matters affecting our operations and business;

Any inability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations or to obtain adequate third-party financing could cause us to delay or abandon certain projects and/or plans.

We rely on government permits and landlord approvals. Our resort operations require permits and approvals from certain Federal, state, and local authorities, including the Forest Service and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Virtually all of our ski trails and related activities, including our current and proposed comprehensive summer activities plan, at Vail Mountain, Breckenridge, Keystone, Heavenly, Kirkwood and a majority of Beaver Creek are located on National Forest land. The Forest Service has granted us permits to use these lands, but maintains the right to review and approve many operational matters, as well as the location, design and construction of improvements in these areas. Currently, our permits expire December 31, 2029 for Breckenridge; December 1, 2031 for Vail Mountain; December 31, 2032 for Keystone; November 8, 2039 for Beaver Creek; May 1, 2042 for Heavenly; and March 1, 2052 for Kirkwood. The Forest Service can terminate or amend these permits if, in its opinion, such termination is required in the public interest. A termination or amendment of any of our permits could

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have a materially adverse effect on our business and operations. In order to undertake improvements and new development, we must apply for permits and other approvals. These efforts, if unsuccessful, could impact our expansion efforts. Furthermore, Congress may materially increase the fees we pay to the Forest Service for use of these National Forest lands. The Forest Service is in the process of developing SUP language that may burden our water rights or require us to transfer ownership of some water rights used within ski area SUP boundaries.  Once the new SUP language is finalized, the Forest Service will have the right to amend our existing SUPs to include this new language. The new permit language may substantially impair the value of or our ability to fully use existing water rights at Breckenridge, Vail Mountain, Keystone, Beaver Creek or Heavenly and may make it difficult to acquire new sources of water in the future. Additionally, our operations at Northstar and Canyons are conducted pursuant to long-term leases with third parties which require us to operate the resorts in accordance with the terms of the leases and seek certain approvals from the respective landlords for improvements made to the resorts. The initial lease term for Northstar with affiliates of CNL Lifestyle Properties, Inc. expires in January 2027, and allows for three 10-year renewal options. We entered into a transaction agreement, master lease agreement and ancillary transaction documents with affiliate companies of Talisker Corporation ("Talisker"), the initial lease term for Canyons with Talisker expires in May 2063, and allows for six 50-year renewal options. With respect to either Northstar or Canyons, there is no guarantee that at the end of the initial lease terms we will renew or, if desired, be able to negotiate new terms that are favorable to us. At our resorts that operate on privately-owned land, Northstar, Canyons, Afton Alps and Mt. Brighton, and at the portions of our other resorts that operate on private land, we are subject to local land use regulation and oversight by county and/or town government and may not be able to obtain the requisite approvals needed for resort improvements or expansions. Additionally, failure to comply with the provisions, obligations and terms (including renewal requirements and deadlines) of our material permits and leases could adversely impact our operating results.

We are subject to extensive environmental laws and regulations in the ordinary course of business. Our operations are subject to a variety of Federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations including those relating to emissions to the air, discharges to water, storage, treatment and disposal of wastes, land use, remediation of contaminated sites and protection of natural resources such as wetlands. For example, future expansions of certain of our mountain facilities must comply with applicable forest plans approved under the National Forest Management Act, state and federal wildlife protection laws or local zoning requirements. In addition, most projects to improve, upgrade or expand our ski areas are subject to environmental review under the NEPA and, for California projects at Heavenly, Kirkwood and Northstar, the CEQA. Both acts require that the Forest Service, or other governmental entities, study any proposal for potential environmental impacts and include in its analysis various alternatives. Our ski area improvement proposals may not be approved or may be approved with modifications that substantially increase the cost or decrease the desirability of implementing the project. Our facilities are subject to risks associated with mold and other indoor building contaminants. From time to time our operations are subject to inspections by environmental regulators or other regulatory agencies. We are also subject to worker health and safety requirements. We believe our operations are in substantial compliance with applicable material environmental, health and safety requirements. However, our efforts to comply do not eliminate the risk that we may be held liable, incur fines or be subject to claims for damages, and that the amount of any liability, fines, damages or remediation costs may be material for, among other things, the presence or release of regulated materials at, on or emanating from properties we now or formerly owned or operated, newly discovered environmental impacts or contamination at or from any of our properties, or changes in environmental laws and regulations or their enforcement.

We rely on information technology to operate our businesses and maintain our competitiveness, and any failure to adapt to technological developments or industry trends could harm our business. We depend on the use of sophisticated information technology and systems, including technology and systems used for central reservations, point of sale, procurement, administration and technologies we make available to our guests. We must continuously improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to offer enhanced products, services, features and functionality, while maintaining the reliability and integrity of our systems and infrastructure. Our future success also depends on our ability to adapt our infrastructure to meet rapidly evolving consumer trends and demands and to respond to competitive service and product offerings.

In addition, we may not be able to maintain our existing systems or replace or introduce new technologies and systems as quickly as we would like or in a cost-effective manner. Delays or difficulties in implementing new or enhanced systems may keep us from achieving the desired results in a timely manner, to the extent anticipated, or at all. Any interruptions, outages or delays in our systems, or deterioration in their performance, could impair our ability to process transactions and could decrease our quality of service that we offer to our guests. Also, we may be unable to devote financial resources to new technologies and systems in the future. If any of these events occur, our business and financial performance could suffer.

Failure to maintain the integrity of internal or guest data could result in damages to our reputation and/or subject us to costs, fines or lawsuits. We collect and retain guest data, including credit card numbers and other personally identifiable information, for various business purposes, including transactional marketing and promotional purposes. We also maintain personally identifiable information about our employees. The integrity and privacy of our guest's and employee's information

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is very important to us and our guests and employees have a high expectation that we will adequately protect their personal information. The regulatory environment, as well as the requirements imposed on us by the payment card industry, governing information, security and privacy laws is increasingly demanding and continue to evolve and on occasion may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another. Maintaining compliance with applicable security and privacy regulations may increase our operating costs and/or impact our ability to market our products, properties and services to our guests.

Despite our efforts, information networks and systems may be vulnerable to service interruptions or to security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees or vendors, or from attacks by malicious third parties.   Although we have taken steps to address these concerns by implementing network security and internal controls, there can be no assurance that a system interruption, security breach or unauthorized access will not occur.  Any such interruption, breach or unauthorized access to our network or systems could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive confidential information or intellectual property, and could result in financial, legal, business and reputational harm to us.

We are subject to litigation in the ordinary course of business. We are, from time to time, subject to various asserted or unasserted legal proceedings and claims. Any such claims, regardless of merit, could be time consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management's attention and resources. While we believe we have adequate insurance coverage and/or accrue for loss contingencies for all known matters that are probable and can be reasonably estimated, we cannot assure that the outcome of all current or future litigation will not have a material adverse effect on us and our results of operations. For a more detailed discussion of our legal proceedings see "Legal Proceedings" under Item 3 and Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Our business depends on the quality and reputation of our brands, and any deterioration in the quality or reputation of these brands could have an adverse impact on our business. A negative public image or other adverse events could affect the reputation of one or more of our mountain resorts, other destination resorts, hotel properties and other businesses or more generally impact the reputation of our brands. If the reputation or perceived quality of our brands declines, our market share, reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely impacted. The unauthorized use of our trademarks could also diminish the value of our brands and their market acceptance, competitive advantages or goodwill, which could adversely affect our business.

There is a risk of accidents occurring at our mountain resorts or competing mountain resorts which may reduce visitation and negatively impact our operations. Our brand and our reputation are among our most important assets. Our ability to attract and retain guests depends, in part, upon the external perceptions of the Company, the quality and safety of our resorts, services and activities, including summer activities, and our corporate and management integrity. While we maintain and promote an on-mountain safety program, there are inherent risks associated with our resort activities. An accident or an injury at any of our resorts or at resorts operated by competitors, particularly an accident or injury involving the safety of guests and employees that receives media attention, could negatively impact our brand or reputation, cause loss of consumer confidence in the Company, reduce visitation at our resorts, and negatively impact our results of operations. The considerable expansion in the use of social media over recent years has compounded the impact of negative publicity. If any such incident occurs during a time of high seasonal demand, the effect could disproportionately impact our results of operations in a fiscal year.

We depend on a seasonal workforce. Our mountain and lodging operations are highly dependent on a large seasonal workforce. We recruit year-round to fill thousands of seasonal staffing needs each season and work to manage seasonal wages and the timing of the hiring process to ensure the appropriate workforce is in place. We cannot guarantee that material increases in the cost of securing our seasonal workforce will not be necessary in the future. Furthermore, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to recruit and hire adequate seasonal personnel as the business requires. Increased seasonal wages or an inadequate workforce could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with our workforce, including increased labor costs. We are subject to various federal and state laws governing matters such as minimum wage requirements, overtime compensation and other working conditions, work authorization requirements, discrimination and family and medical leave. Labor and labor-related benefits is a primary component in the cost of our operations. Labor shortages, increased employee turnover and health care mandates could increase our labor costs. Also, as minimum wage rates increase, including further potential federal and state legislative changes to the minimum wage rate, we may need to increase not only the wages of our minimum wage employees but also the wages paid to employees at wage rates that are above the minimum wage. These potential labor impacts could adversely impact our financial results.
If we do not retain our key personnel, our business may suffer. The success of our business is heavily dependent on the leadership of key management personnel, including our senior executive officers. If any of these persons were to leave, it could

26




be difficult to replace them, and our business could be harmed. We do not maintain “key-man” life insurance on any of our employees.

Our acquisitions or future acquisitions might not be successful. We have acquired certain mountain resorts, hotel properties and other businesses complementary to our own, as well as developable land in proximity to our resorts. Acquisitions are complex to evaluate, execute and integrate. We cannot assure you that we will be able to accurately evaluate or successfully integrate and manage acquired mountain resorts, properties and businesses and increase our profits from these operations. We continually evaluate potential acquisitions and intend to actively pursue acquisition opportunities, some of which could be significant. As a result, we face various risks from acquisitions, including:

our evaluation of the synergies and/or long-term benefits of an acquired business;
our inability to integrate acquired businesses into our operations as planned;
diversion of our management's attention;
potential increased debt leverage;
litigation arising from acquisition activity;
potential goodwill or other intangible asset impairments; and
unanticipated problems or liabilities.

In addition, we run the risk that any new acquisitions may fail to perform in accordance with expectations, and that estimates of the costs of improvements for such properties may prove inaccurate.

We may not realize all the anticipated financial benefits from Canyons or PCMR. In May 2013, we entered into a long-term lease to assume the resort operations of Canyons, including its ski area and related amenities, and the ski terrain of PCMR (excluding the base area), which was subject to litigation. On September 11, 2014, we acquired the resort operations of PCMR (including the base area) and entered into ancillary transaction documents that provided for, among other things, the settlement of the litigation related to the ski terrain of PCMR. Following the acquisition, the PCMR ski terrain, which was previously subject to litigation, was incorporated into the Canyons lease under the existing terms of the lease. The Canyons lease has an initial term of 50 years with six 50-year renewal options and an annual fixed lease payment of $25 million. The lease payment is subject to annual increases based upon the increase in the CPI index less 1%, with a floor of 2% per year. As lease payments increase annually, we may be adversely impacted to the extent these increases are not offset by increases in cash flow generated from operations. We also anticipate realizing significant tax benefits which are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service. Additionally, we record liabilities for uncertain tax positions which may be inadequate.
In addition, the Canyons lease requires us to pay participating contingent payments to Talisker equal to 42% of the amount by which EBITDA for the resort operations of both Canyons and PCMR exceeds $35 million, which increases annually based upon the increase in the CPI index plus a 10% adjustment for any capital improvements or investments made under the lease by us, including the purchase price for PCMR. We are required to measure at each reporting period the fair value of the future estimated participating contingent payments and record the change in fair value in our income (loss) from operations. This change in fair value of participating contingent payments could provide significant fluctuations in our operating results in a particular period.

We may be required to write-off a portion of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible asset and/or long-lived asset balances as a result of prolonged weakness in economic conditions. Under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”), we test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually as well as on an interim basis to the extent factors or indicators become apparent that could reduce the fair value of our reporting units or indefinite-lived intangible assets below book value and we evaluate long-lived assets for potential impairment whenever events or change in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill by estimating the future discounted cash flows of our reporting units and terminal values of the businesses using projected future levels of income as well as business trends, prospects and market and economic conditions. We evaluate the recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based upon estimated future revenue streams (see "Critical Accounting Policies" in Item 7 of this Form 10-K). We evaluate the recoverability of long-lived assets by estimating the future undiscounted cash flows using projected future levels of income. However, if lower than projected levels of cash flows were to occur due to prolonged abnormal weather conditions or a prolonged weakness in general economic conditions, among other risk factors, it could cause less than expected growth and/or a reduction in terminal values and cash flows and could result in an impairment charge attributable to certain goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and/or long-lived assets, negatively impacting our results of operations and stockholders' equity.

We are subject to accounting regulations and use certain accounting estimates and judgments that may differ significantly from actual results. Implementation of existing and future legislation, rulings, standards and interpretations

27




from the FASB or other regulatory bodies could affect the presentation of our financial statements and related disclosures. Future regulatory requirements could significantly change our current accounting practices and disclosures. Such changes in the presentation of our financial statements and related disclosures could change an investor's interpretation or perception of our financial position and results of operations.

We use many methods, estimates and judgments in applying our accounting policies (see "Critical Accounting Policies" in Item 7 of this Form 10-K). Such methods, estimates and judgments are, by their nature, subject to substantial risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and factors may arise over time that lead us to change our methods, estimates and judgments. Changes in those methods, estimates and judgments could significantly affect our results of operations.

Risks Relating to Our Capital Structure
Our stock price is highly volatile. The market price of our stock is highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors such as the following, some of which are beyond our control:

quarterly variations in our operating results;
operating results that vary from the expectations of securities analysts and investors;
change in valuations, including our future real estate developments;
changes in the overall travel, gaming, hospitality and leisure industries;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates by securities analysts and investors or such guidance provided by us;
announcements by us or companies in the travel, gaming, hospitality and leisure industries of significant contracts, acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, capital commitments, plans, prospects, service offerings or operating results;
additions or departures of key personnel;
future sales of our securities;
trading and volume fluctuations;
other risk factors as discussed above; and
other unforeseen events.

Stock markets in the United States have often experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Market fluctuations, as well as general political and economic conditions including acts of terrorism, military conflicts, prolonged economic uncertainty, a recession or interest rate or currency rate fluctuations, could adversely affect the market price of our stock.

We cannot provide assurance that we will continue to increase dividend payments and/or pay dividends. In fiscal 2011, our Board of Directors approved the commencement of a regular quarterly cash dividend on our common stock at an annual rate of $0.60 per share, subject to quarterly declaration. Since the initial commencement of a regular quarterly cash dividend, our Board of Directors has annually approved an increase to our cash dividend on our common stock. On March 10, 2014, our Board of Directors approved a 100% increase to our quarterly cash dividend to $0.4150 per share, subject to quarterly declaration. This dividend is anticipated to be funded through cash flow from operations and available cash on hand. Although we anticipate paying regular quarterly dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future, the declaration of dividends is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors, and is limited by applicable state law concepts of available funds for distribution as well as contractual restrictions. As a result, the amount, if any, of the dividends to be paid in the future will depend upon a number of factors, including our available cash on hand, anticipated cash needs, overall financial condition, restrictions contained in our senior credit facility, the Sixth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, as amended, among us, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and the Lenders party thereto (“Credit Agreement”) and the Indenture, dated April 25, 2011 among us, the guarantors therein and The Bank of New York Mellon Trust Company, N.A., as Trustee (“Indenture”), governing our 6.50% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2019 (“6.50% Notes”), any future contractual restrictions, future prospects for earnings and cash flows, as well as other factors considered relevant by our Board of Directors. In addition, our Board of Directors may also suspend the payment of dividends at any time if it deems such action to be in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. If we do not pay dividends, the price of our common stock must appreciate for investors to realize a gain on their investment in Vail Resorts, Inc. This appreciation may not occur and our stock may in fact depreciate in value.

Anti-takeover provisions affecting us could prevent or delay a change of control that is beneficial to our stockholders. Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, provisions of our debt instruments and other agreements and provisions of applicable Delaware law and applicable Federal and state regulations may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or other change of control that holders of our securities may consider favorable. These provisions could:


28




delay, defer or prevent a change in control of our Company;
discourage bids for our securities at a premium over the market price;
adversely affect the market price of, and the voting and other rights of the holders of our securities; or
impede the ability of the holders of our securities to change our management.

Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations. As of July 31, 2014, we had $626.6 million of outstanding indebtedness. Additionally on September 11, 2014, we acquired PCMR for a cash purchase price of $182.5 million, subject to certain post-closing adjustments, which was funded through borrowings under the revolver portion of our Credit Agreement. For additional information, see Note 19, Subsequent Event, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. We also have minimum lease payment obligations under operating leases of approximately $261.2 million as of July 31, 2014. Our level of indebtedness and minimum lease payment obligations could have important consequences. For example, it could:

make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, including the annual fixed lease payments under the Canyons obligation, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, real estate developments, marketing efforts and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
limit our ability to borrow additional funds.

We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of our Indenture do not fully prohibit us from doing so. If we incur additional debt, the related risks that we face could intensify.

There are restrictions imposed by the terms of our indebtedness. The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our Credit Agreement and Indenture may adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities and strategic initiatives that may be in our long-term best interests. For example, the Indenture and the Credit Agreement contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things:

incur additional debt or sell preferred stock;
pay dividends, repurchase our stock and make other restricted payments;
create liens;
make certain types of investments;
engage in sales of assets and subsidiary stock;
enter into sales-leaseback transactions;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
issue guarantees of debt
transfer all or substantially all of our assets or enter into merger or consolidation transactions; and
make capital expenditures.

In addition, there can be no assurance that we will meet the financial covenants contained in our Credit Agreement. If we breach any of these restrictions or covenants, or suffer a material adverse change which restricts our borrowing ability under our Credit Agreement, we would not be able to borrow funds thereunder without a waiver. Any inability to borrow could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a breach, if uncured, could cause a default under the Indenture and our other debt. Our indebtedness may then become immediately due and payable. We may not have or be able to obtain sufficient funds to make these accelerated payments, including payments on the 6.50% Notes.

ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.

29





 
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES.
The following table sets forth the principal properties that we own or lease for use in our operations at fiscal year end:
 
Location
Ownership
Use
 
 
 
Afton Alps, MN
(296 acres)
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, golf course, clubhouse, buildings, commercial space and other improvements
Arrowhead Mountain, CO
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, property management and commercial space
BC Housing Riveredge, CO
26% Owned
Employee housing facilities
Bachelor Gulch Village, CO
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, property management and commercial space
Beaver Creek Resort, CO
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, property management, commercial space and real estate held for sale or development
Beaver Creek Mountain, CO (3,849
acres)
SUP
Ski trails, ski lifts, buildings and other improvements
Beaver Creek Mountain Resort, CO
Owned
Golf course, clubhouse, commercial space and residential condominium units
Breckenridge Ski Resort, CO
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, property management, commercial space and real estate held for sale or development
Breckenridge Mountain, CO (5,702
acres)
SUP
Ski trails, ski lifts, buildings and other improvements
Breckenridge Terrace, CO
50% Owned
Employee housing facilities
Broomfield, CO
Leased
Corporate offices
Canyons Resort, UT
(6,100 acres)
Leased *
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings, commercial space, dining facilities, property management, conference facilities and other improvements
Colter Bay Village, WY
Concessionaire contract
Lodging and dining facilities
Eagle-Vail, CO
Owned
Warehouse facility
Edwards, CO
Leased
Administrative offices
DoubleTree by Hilton Breckenridge, CO
Owned
Lodging, dining and conference facilities
Headwaters Lodge & Cabins, WY
Concessionaire contract
Lodging and dining facilities
Heavenly Mountain Resort, CA & NV
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements and commercial space
Heavenly Mountain, CA & NV
(7,050 acres)
SUP
Ski trails, ski lifts, buildings and other improvements
Inn at Keystone, CO
Owned
Lodging, dining and conference facilities
Jackson Hole Golf & Tennis Club,
WY
Owned
Golf course, clubhouse, tennis facilities, dining and real estate held for sale or development
Jackson Lake Lodge, WY
Concessionaire contract
Lodging, dining and conference facilities
Jenny Lake Lodge, WY
Concessionaire contract
Lodging and dining facilities

30




Keystone Conference Center, CO
Owned
Conference facility
Keystone Lodge, CO
Owned
Lodging, spa, dining and conference facilities
Keystone Resort, CO
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, commercial space, property management, dining and real estate held for sale or development
Keystone Mountain, CO (8,376 acres)
SUP
Ski trails, ski lifts, buildings and other improvements
Keystone Ranch, CO
Owned
Golf course, clubhouse and dining facilities
Kirkwood Mountain Resort, CA
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, property management and commercial space
Kirkwood Mountain, CA (2,330 acres)
SUP
Ski trails, ski lifts, buildings and other improvements
Mt. Brighton, MI
(193 acres)
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, golf course, clubhouse, buildings, commercial space and other improvements
Northstar California Resort, CA**
(7,200 acres)
Leased
Ski trails, ski lifts, golf course, commercial space, dining facilities, buildings and other improvements
Northstar Village, CA**
Leased
Commercial space, ski resort operations, dining facilities, buildings, property management and other improvements
Red Cliffs Lodge, CA
Leased
Dining facilities, ski resort operations, commercial space, administrative offices
Red Sky Ranch, CO
Owned
Golf courses, clubhouses, dining facilities and real estate held for sale or development
River Course at Keystone, CO
Owned
Golf course and clubhouse
Seasons at Avon, CO
Leased/50% Owned
Administrative offices, commercial space
SSI Venture, LLC (“SSV”) Properties; CO, CA, NV, UT, MN & WI
Owned/Leased
Approximately 185 retail stores (of which 123 stores are currently held under lease) for recreational products, and 4 leased warehouses
Ski Tip Lodge, CO
Owned
Lodging and dining facilities
The Arrabelle at Vail Square, CO
Owned
Lodging, spa, dining and conference facilities
The Lodge at Vail, CO
Owned
Lodging, spa, dining and conference facilities
The Osprey at Beaver Creek, CO
Owned
Lodging, dining and conference facilities
The Tarnes at Beaver Creek, CO
31% Owned
Employee housing facilities
Tenderfoot Housing, CO
50% Owned
Employee housing facilities
The Pines Lodge at Beaver Creek, CO
Owned
Lodging, dining and conference facilities
The Village Hotel, Breckenridge, CO
Owned
Lodging, dining, conference facilities and commercial space
Vail Mountain, CO
Owned
Ski resort operations, including ski lifts, ski trails, buildings and other improvements, property management, commercial space and real estate held for sale or development
Vail Mountain, CO (12,353 acres)
SUP
Ski trails, ski lifts, buildings and other improvements
The Forest Service SUPs are encumbered under certain of our debt instruments. Many of our properties are used across all segments in complementary and interdependent ways.
* The operations of Canyons are conducted pursuant to a long-term lease on land and with certain operating assets owned by Talisker. The lease provides for the payment of a minimum annual base rent with periodic increases in base rent over the lease term and participating contingent payments of a percentage of the amount by which EBITDA for resort operations exceeds certain thresholds, also subject to periodic increases over the lease term. The initial term of the lease expires in fiscal 2063 and

31




is subject to six 50-year renewal options. Additionally, in connection with the lease, we entered into certain ancillary agreements with third parties, including leases and easements, allowing for various resort operations.

** The operations of Northstar are conducted on land and with operating assets owned by affiliates of CNL Lifestyle Properties, Inc. under operating leases which were assumed by us. The leases provide for the payment of a minimum annual base rent with periodic increases in base rent over the lease term. In addition, the leases provide for the payment of percentage rent based on a percentage of gross revenues generated at the property over certain thresholds. The initial term of the leases expires in fiscal 2027, and are subject to three 10-year renewal options.

ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
We are a party to various lawsuits arising in the ordinary course of business. We believe that we have adequate insurance coverage and/or have accrued for loss contingencies for all known matters and that, although the ultimate outcome of such claims cannot be ascertained, current pending and threatened claims are not expected to have a material, individually and in the aggregate, adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Internal Revenue Service Litigation
On August 24, 2009, we filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado against the United States of America seeking a refund of approximately $6.2 million in Federal income taxes paid for the tax years ended December 31, 2000 and December 31, 2001. Our amended tax returns for those years included calculations of NOLs carried forward from prior years to reduce our tax years 2000 and 2001 tax liabilities. The IRS disallowed refunds associated with those NOL carry forwards and we disagreed with the IRS action disallowing the utilization of the NOLs. On July 1, 2011, the District Court granted us summary judgment, concluding that the IRS’s decision disallowing the utilization of the NOLs was inappropriate. The District Court proceedings have been continued pending on-going settlement discussions between the parties.
We are also a party to two related tax proceedings in the United States Tax Court ("Tax Court") regarding calculation of NOL carryover deductions for tax years 2006, 2007, and 2008. The two proceedings involve substantially the same issues as the litigation in the District Court for tax years 2000 and 2001 wherein we disagreed with the IRS as to the utilization of NOLs. At this time, however, it is uncertain whether or how the potential resolution of the District Court case may affect these Tax Court proceedings. The trial date for the Tax Court proceedings has been continued pending on-going settlement discussions between the parties.
PCMR Litigation
On May 29, 2013, in connection with our lease for Canyons Resort, we also assumed control over Talisker's ongoing litigation with the then current Park City Mountain Resort ("PCMR") operator related to the validity of one or more leases of the Talisker owned land under the majority of the ski terrain of PCMR (the "PCMR litigation").
The PCMR litigation was instituted on March 9, 2012, in the Third Judicial District Court in Summit County, Utah by Greater Park City Company and Greater Properties, Inc. (collectively, "GPCC") against United Park City Mines Company and Talisker Land Holdings, LLC (collectively, "TLH"). GPCC filed the PCMR litigation seeking, among other things, a declaration from the court it had properly extended the leases or that the leases have not expired based on theories of waiver or equitable estoppel. In the alternative, GPCC sought damages caused by TLH's alleged failure to disclose to GPCC until December 2011 that the leases had expired.
On September 18, 2013, the Court granted GPCC's motion to amend to add our subsidiary, VR CPC Holdings, Inc., as a defendant, and to add claims based upon provisions in the leases which prohibit the sale of portions of the land covered by the leases which are improved and grant PCMR a right of first refusal on sales by the landlord of portions of the land covered by the leases which are not improved. PCMR claimed these provisions may have been triggered by our transaction with Talisker and/or by another transaction in which Talisker was involved with a party named Flera.
On May 21, 2014, the Court granted summary judgment to TLH dismissing GPCC’s claims that the leases were extended finding, as a matter of law that GPCC’s leases expired, by their terms, as of April 30, 2011. The Court also granted summary judgment to TLH, dismissing GPCC’s claims that the Vail and Flera transactions violated the prohibition on sale and right of first refusal provisions in the leases. The Court also granted summary judgment to TLH on GPCC’s claim for damages based on an alleged fraudulent failure by TLH to disclose to GPCC prior to December 2011 that the leases had expired, but denied summary judgment to TLH on GPCC’s claim based on an alleged negligent failure to disclose and stated that claim should proceed to trial. GPCC sought approximately $7.0 million in damages on the nondisclosure claim.

32




On July 1, 2014, the Court entered an order granting partial summary judgment to TLH on its unlawful detainer claim, finding that GPCC is no longer in lawful possession of the land. The Court also entered an order of restitution of the land, returning possession to TLH, but stayed such order until August 27, 2014, at GPCC’s request. GPCC requested a stay of the execution of the order of restitution until its appeals of the Court’s rulings have been exhausted and moved to allow an interlocutory appeal of the Court’s rulings. TLH did not oppose GPCC’s request for a stay or for an interlocutory appeal if an adequate bond is posted.
On July 25, 2014, GPCC also separately filed a notice of appeal of the Court’s July 1 order granting partial summary judgment on the unlawful detainer claim with the Utah Supreme Court. Concurrent with the notice of appeal, GPCC also filed with the Utah Supreme Court a motion seeking a summary determination whether the Utah Supreme Court had jurisdiction over the noticed appeal. The Utah Supreme Court has not issued a ruling in response to GPCC’s motion or noticed appeal.
The Court held a hearing on August 27, 2014, regarding the motion for an interlocutory appeal and the methodology and calculation of the bond. On September 5, 2014, the Court denied GPCC’s request for an interlocutory appeal, finding that an appeal was not appropriate until all of the remaining issues have been resolved. As a result of denying the request to appeal, the Court held that the requested stay was a stay of the execution of the order of restitution and the bond should cover only an estimate of damages arising out of continued possession of the land by PCMR, not an estimate of the damages already incurred and still yet to be determined at a trial. In total, the Court ordered PCMR to post a bond of $17.5 million no later than September 12, 2014. The Court also ordered PCMR to post an additional bond of $19.0 million no later than March 2, 2015, if PCMR wished to remain on the land for the 2015/2016 ski season.
On September 11, 2014, we acquired the resort operations of PCMR, which includes the ski area and related amenities, from GPCC and two GPCC affiliated entities. In addition, the parties entered into ancillary transaction documents regarding, among other items, settlement of the PCMR litigation with GPCC. On September 15, 2014, the parties filed a stipulated motion and proposed order for dismissal of all claims, with prejudice, and the Court entered the proposed order. On September 15, 2014, the parties also filed a stipulated motion to dismiss the appeal of the order on the unlawful detainer claim filed by GPCC with the Utah Supreme Court.
 
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable.

33




PART II

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Market Information and Dividend Policy
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “MTN.” As of September 17, 2014, 36,218,867 shares of common stock were outstanding, held by approximately 324 holders of record.
The following table sets forth information on the high and low sales prices of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange and the quarterly cash dividends declared per share of common stock for each quarterly period for the two most recently completed fiscal years.
 
 
Quarter Ended
 
 
 
 
Cash
Dividends
Declared
Per Share
 
 
Market Price Per Share
 
 
High
 
Low
 
 
Fiscal Year 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
October 31,
$
73.11

 
$
65.10

 
$
0.2075

 
January 31,
$
76.90

 
$
67.24

 
$
0.2075

 
April 30,
$
73.08

 
$
64.47

 
$
0.4150

 
July 31,
$
79.47

 
$
64.61

 
$
0.4150

 
Fiscal Year 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
October 31,
$
59.49

 
$
48.65

 
$
0.1875

 
January 31,
$
58.40

 
$
49.35

 
$
0.1875

 
April 30,
$
64.33

 
$
52.66

 
$
0.2075

 
July 31,
$
67.74

 
$
59.17

 
$
0.2075


In fiscal 2011, our Board of Directors approved the commencement of a regular quarterly cash dividend on our common stock at an annual rate of $0.60 per share, subject to quarterly declaration. Since the initial commencement of a regular quarterly cash dividend, our Board of Directors has annually approved an increase to our cash dividend on our common stock and on March 10, 2014, our Board of Directors approved a 100% increase to our quarterly cash dividend to an annual rate of $1.66 per share, subject to quarterly declaration. This dividend is anticipated to be funded through cash flow from operations and available cash on hand. Subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors, applicable law and contractual restrictions, we anticipate paying regular quarterly dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. The amount, if any, of the dividends to be paid in the future will depend upon our available cash on hand, anticipated cash needs, overall financial condition, restrictions contained in our Credit Agreement and the Indenture, future prospects for earnings and cash flows, as well as other factors considered relevant by our Board of Directors.
Repurchase of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth our purchases of shares of our common stock during the fourth quarter of Fiscal 2014:
 
Period
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs (1)
 
Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Plans or
Programs (1)
May 1, 2014 – May 31, 2014

 
$

 

 
1,050,889

June 1, 2014 – June 30, 2014

 

 

 
1,050,889

July 1, 2014 – July 31, 2014

 

 

 
1,050,889

Total

 
$

 

 
1,050,889

 
(1)
The share repurchase program is conducted under authorizations made from time to time by our Board of Directors. The Board of Directors initially authorized the repurchase of up to 3,000,000 shares of common stock

34




(March 9, 2006), and later authorized additional repurchases of up to 3,000,000 additional shares (July 16, 2008). Repurchases under these authorizations may be made from time to time at prevailing prices as permitted by applicable laws, and subject to market conditions and other factors. These authorizations have no expiration date.

Performance Graph

The total return graph above is presented for the period from the end of our 2009 fiscal year through the end of Fiscal 2014. The comparison assumes that $100 was invested at the beginning of the period in our common stock (“MTN”), The Russell 2000, The Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Travel and Leisure Stock Index. We included the Dow Jones U.S. Travel and Leisure Index as we believe we compete in the travel and leisure industry.
The performance graph is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, unless such filings specifically incorporate the performance graph by reference therein.

ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
The following table presents selected historical consolidated financial data derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements for the periods indicated. The financial data for Fiscal 2014, the year ended July 31, 2013 (“Fiscal 2013”) and the year ended July 31, 2012 (“Fiscal 2012”) and as of July 31, 2014 and 2013 should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements, related notes thereto and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The table presented below is unaudited. The data presented below are in thousands, except for diluted net income per share attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc., cash dividends declared per share, effective ticket price (“ETP”), ADR and RevPAR amounts.


35




  
Year Ended July 31,
  
2014(1)
 
2013(1)
 
2012(1)
 
2011(1)
 
2010(1)
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mountain
$
963,573

 
$
867,514

 
$
766,608

 
$
752,191

 
$
638,495

Lodging
242,287

 
210,974

 
210,623

 
214,658

 
195,301

Real estate
48,786

 
42,309

 
47,163

 
200,197

 
61,007

Total net revenue
1,254,646

 
1,120,797

 
1,024,394

 
1,167,046

 
894,803

Segment operating expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mountain
712,785

 
639,706

 
568,578

 
540,366

 
456,017

Lodging
225,563

 
198,813

 
204,270

 
205,903

 
192,909

Real estate
55,826

 
58,090

 
63,170

 
205,232

 
71,402

Total segment operating expense
994,174

 
896,609

 
836,018

 
951,501

 
720,328

Depreciation and amortization
(140,601
)
 
(132,688
)
 
(127,581
)
 
(117,957
)
 
(110,638
)
Gain on sale of real property

 
6,675

 

 

 
6,087

Change in fair value of contingent consideration
(1,400
)
 

 

 

 

Mountain equity investment income, net
1,262

 
891

 
878

 
1,342

 
1,558

Interest expense, net
(63,997
)
 
(38,966
)
 
(33,586
)
 
(33,641
)
 
(17,515
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(10,831
)
 

 

 
(7,372
)
 

Income before provision for income taxes
44,072

 
59,229

 
27,092

 
55,520

 
53,797

Net income
28,206

 
37,610

 
16,391

 
34,422

 
35,775

Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests
272

 
133

 
62

 
67

 
(5,390
)
Net income attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc.
$
28,478

 
$
37,743

 
$
16,453

 
$
34,489

 
$
30,385

Diluted net income per share attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc.
$
0.77

 
$
1.03

 
$
0.45

 
$
0.94

 
$
0.83

Cash dividends declared per share
$
1.245

 
$
0.79

 
$
0.675

 
$
0.15

 
$

Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mountain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Skier visits(2)
7,688

 
6,977

 
6,144

 
6,991

 
6,010

ETP (3)
$
58.18

 
$
56.02

 
$
55.75

 
$
48.99

 
$
48.13

Lodging
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ADR(4)
$
271.23

 
$
264.36

 
$
260.04

 
$
245.03

 
$
237.57

RevPAR(5)
$
108.39

 
$
96.14

 
$
90.36

 
$
93.79

 
$
89.35

Real Estate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real estate held for sale and investment(6)
$
157,858

 
$
195,230

 
$
237,668

 
$
273,663

 
$
422,164

Other Balance Sheet Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents(7)
$
44,406

 
$
138,604

 
$
46,053

 
$
70,143

 
$
14,745

Total assets
$
2,173,849

 
$
2,308,297

 
$
1,927,614

 
$
1,946,236

 
$
1,922,809

Long-term debt (including long-term debt due within one year)
$
626,622

 
$
796,922

 
$
490,765

 
$
491,743

 
$
526,711

Net Debt(8)
$
582,216

 
$
658,318

 
$
444,712

 
$
421,600

 
$
511,966

Total Vail Resorts, Inc. stockholders’ equity
$
820,843

 
$
823,868

 
$
802,311

 
$
829,723

 
$
788,770

(footnotes to selected financial data appear on following page)

36





Footnotes to Selected Financial Data:

(1)
We have made several acquisitions which impact comparability between years during the past five years. The more significant of those include: Canyons transaction (entered into in May 2013); Urban ski areas (acquired in December 2012); Kirkwood Mountain Resort (acquired in April 2012); Skiinfo (acquired February 2012); Northstar (acquired in October 2010); Mountain News Corporation (“Mountain News”) (acquired May 2010); and the remaining noncontrolling interest in SSV (acquired in April 2010).
(2)
A skier visit represents a person utilizing a ticket or pass to access a mountain resort for any part of one day, and includes both paid and complimentary access.
(3)
ETP is calculated by dividing lift revenue by total skier visits during the respective periods.
(4)
ADR is calculated by dividing total room revenue (includes both owned and managed condominium room revenue) by the number of occupied rooms during the respective periods.
(5)
RevPAR is calculated by dividing total room revenue (includes both owned and managed condominium room revenue) by the number of rooms that are available to guests during the respective periods.
(6)
Real estate held for sale and investment includes all land, development costs and other improvements associated with real estate held for sale and investment.
(7)
Cash and cash equivalents excludes restricted cash.
(8)
Net Debt is defined as long-term debt plus long-term debt due within one year less cash and cash equivalents.

37




ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes related thereto included in this Form 10-K. To the extent that the following Management’s Discussion and Analysis contains statements which are not of a historical nature, such statements are forward-looking statements which involve risks and uncertainties. These risks include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Forward-Looking Statements section and Item 1A, “Risk Factors” each included in this Form 10-K.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis includes discussion of financial performance within each of our segments. We have chosen to specifically include Reported EBITDA (defined as segment net revenue less segment operating expense, plus or minus segment equity investment income or loss and for the Real Estate segment, plus gain on sale of real property) and Net Debt (defined as long-term debt plus long-term debt due within one year less cash and cash equivalents), in the following discussion because we consider these measurements to be significant indications of our financial performance and available capital resources. Reported EBITDA and Net Debt are not measures of financial performance or liquidity under GAAP. We utilize Reported EBITDA in evaluating our performance and in allocating resources to our segments. Refer to the end of the Results of Operations section for a reconciliation of Reported EBITDA to net income attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc. We also believe that Net Debt is an important measurement as it is an indicator of our ability to obtain additional capital resources for our future cash needs. Refer to the end of the Results of Operations section for a reconciliation of Net Debt.
Items excluded from Reported EBITDA and Net Debt are significant components in understanding and assessing financial performance or liquidity. Reported EBITDA and Net Debt should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to, or substitute for, net income, net change in cash and cash equivalents or other financial statement data presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements as indicators of financial performance or liquidity. Because Reported EBITDA and Net Debt are not measurements determined in accordance with GAAP and are thus susceptible to varying calculations, Reported EBITDA and Net Debt as presented may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.
Overview
Our operations are grouped into three integrated and interdependent segments: Mountain, Lodging and Real Estate. Resort is the combination of the Mountain and Lodging segments. Revenue from the Mountain, Lodging and Real Estate segments represented approximately 77%, 19% and 4%, respectively, of our net revenue for Fiscal 2014.
Park City Mountain Resort Acquisition
On September 11, 2014, VR CPC Holdings, Inc. (“VR CPC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and Greater Park City Company, Powdr Corp., Greater Properties, Inc., Park Properties, Inc., and Powdr Development Company (collectively, “PCMR Sellers”) entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) providing for the acquisition of substantially all of the assets related to Park City Mountain Resort ("PCMR") in Park City, Utah. The cash purchase price was $182.5 million, subject to certain post-closing adjustments. As provided under the Purchase Agreement, we acquired the property, assets and operations that includes the ski area and related amenities of PCMR, from PCMR Sellers and leased certain realty, acquired certain assets, and assumed certain liabilities of PCMR Sellers relating to PCMR. In addition to the Purchase Agreement, the parties entered into ancillary transaction documents, including an agreement that settled all ongoing litigation related to the validity of a lease of certain land owned by Talisker Land Holdings, LLC under the ski terrain of PCMR. For additional information, see Note 19, Subsequent Event, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Mountain Segment
During Fiscal 2014 the Mountain segment was comprised of the operations of eight mountain resort properties at the Vail, Breckenridge, Keystone and Beaver Creek mountain resorts in Colorado (“Colorado” resorts); the Heavenly, Northstar and Kirkwood (acquired in April 2012) mountain resorts in the Lake Tahoe area of California and Nevada (“Tahoe” resorts); the Canyons mountain resort in Park City, Utah (transaction entered into in May 2013); and the ski areas of Afton Alps in Minnesota and Mount Brighton in Michigan (both acquired in December 2012) ("Urban" ski areas); as well as ancillary services, primarily including ski school, dining and retail/rental operations. Our mountain resorts were open for business for the 2013/2014 ski season primarily from mid-November through mid-April, which is the peak operating season for the Mountain segment. Our single largest source of Mountain segment revenue is the sale of lift tickets (including season passes), which represented approximately 46%, 45% and 45% of Mountain segment net revenue for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively.


38




Lift revenue is driven by volume and pricing. Pricing is impacted by both absolute pricing as well as the demographic mix of guests, which impacts the price points at which various products are purchased. The demographic mix of guests is divided into two primary categories: (1) out-of-state and international (“Destination”) guests and (2) in-state and local (“In-State”) guests. For both the 2013/2014 and 2012/2013 ski seasons, Destination guests comprised approximately 56% of our mountain resort skier visits, while In-State guests comprised approximately 44% of our mountain resort skier visits, which compares to approximately 57% and 43%, respectively, for the 2011/2012 ski season.

Destination guests generally purchase our higher-priced lift ticket products and utilize more ancillary services such as ski school, dining and retail/rental, as well as lodging at or around our mountain resorts. Destination guest visitation is less likely to be impacted by changes in the weather, but can be more impacted by adverse economic conditions or the global geopolitical climate. In-State guests tend to be more value-oriented and weather sensitive. We offer a variety of season pass products for all of our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas, marketed towards both Destination and In-State guests. Our season pass product offerings range from providing access to one or a combination of our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas to our Epic Season Pass, which allows pass holders unlimited and unrestricted access to all of our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas. Our season pass program provides a compelling value proposition to our guests, which in turn assists us in developing a loyal base of customers who commit to ski at our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas generally in advance of the ski season and typically ski more days each season at our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas than those guests who do not buy season passes. As such, our season pass program drives strong customer loyalty; mitigates exposure to more weather sensitive guests; and generates additional ancillary spending. In addition, our season pass program attracts new guests to our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas. All of our season pass products, including the Epic Pass, are predominately sold prior to the start of the ski season. Season pass revenue, although primarily collected prior to the ski season, is recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Operations ratably over the ski season. For the 2013/2014, 2012/2013 and 2011/2012 ski seasons, approximately 40%, 38% and 40%, respectively, of total lift revenue was derived from season pass revenue.
The cost structure of our mountain resort operations has a significant fixed component with variable expenses including, but not limited to, Forest Service fees, credit card fees, retail/rental cost of sales and labor, ski school labor and dining operations; as such, profit margins can fluctuate greatly based on the level of revenues.
Lodging Segment
Operations within the Lodging segment include (i) ownership/management of a group of luxury hotels through the RockResorts brand, the majority of which are proximate to our mountain resorts; (ii) ownership/management of non-RockResorts branded hotels and condominiums proximate to our mountain resorts; (iii) NPS concessionaire properties including GTLC; (iv) CME, a Colorado resort ground transportation company; and (v) mountain resort golf courses.

The performance of lodging properties (including managed condominium rooms) proximate to our mountain resorts, and CME, is closely aligned with the performance of the Mountain segment and generally experiences similar seasonal trends, particularly with respect to visitation by Destination guests, and represented approximately 71%, 67% and 66% of Lodging segment net revenue (excluding Lodging segment revenue associated with reimbursement of payroll costs) for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively. Management primarily focuses on Lodging net revenue excluding payroll cost reimbursements and Lodging operating expense excluding reimbursed payroll costs (which are not measures of financial performance under GAAP) as the reimbursements are made based upon the costs incurred with no added margin, as such the revenue and corresponding expense have no effect on our Lodging Reported EBITDA which we use to evaluate Lodging segment performance. Revenue of the Lodging segment during our first and fourth fiscal quarters is generated primarily by the operations of our NPS concessionaire properties (as their operating season generally occurs from mid-May to mid-October); mountain resort golf operations and seasonally low operations from our other owned and managed properties and businesses.
Real Estate Segment
The Real Estate segment owns and develops real estate in and around our resort communities and primarily engages in vertical development of projects, as well as occasional sales of land to third-party developers. Currently, the principal activities of our Real Estate segment include the marketing and selling of remaining condominium units that are available for sale, which primarily relate to The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail, and One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge; planning for future real estate development projects, including zoning and acquisition of applicable permits; and the occasional purchase of selected strategic land parcels for future development as well as the sale of land parcels to third-party developers. Revenue from vertical development projects is not recognized until closing of individual units within a project, which occurs after substantial completion of the project. We attempt to mitigate the risk associated with vertical development by utilizing guaranteed maximum price construction contracts (although certain construction costs may not be covered by contractual limitations), pre-selling a portion of the project, requiring significant non-refundable deposits from buyers, and potentially obtaining non-recourse financing for certain projects (although our last two major vertical development projects have not incurred any such

39




direct third party financing). Additionally, our real estate development projects most often result in the creation of certain resort assets that provide additional benefit to the Mountain and Lodging segments.

Although we continue to undertake preliminary planning and design work on future projects, we currently do not plan to undertake significant development activities on new projects until the current economic environment for real estate improves. We believe that, due to our low carrying cost of real estate land investments combined with the absence of third party debt associated with our real estate investments, we are well situated to evaluate the launch of future projects with a more favorable economic environment. Our revenue from the Real Estate segment, and associated expense, can fluctuate significantly based upon the timing of closings and the type of real estate being sold, causing volatility in the Real Estate segment's operating results from period to period.
Recent Trends, Risks and Uncertainties
We have identified the following important factors (as well as uncertainties associated with such factors) that could impact our future financial performance:
 
The timing and amount of snowfall can have an impact on Mountain and Lodging revenue particularly in regards to skier visits and the duration and frequency of guest visitation. To help mitigate this impact, we sell a variety of season pass products prior to the beginning of the ski season resulting in a more stabilized stream of lift revenue. Additionally, our season pass products provide a compelling value proposition to our guests, which in turn creates a guest commitment predominantly prior to the start of the ski season. In March 2014, we began our pre-season pass sales program for the 2014/2015 ski season. Through September 21, 2014, pre-season pass sales for the upcoming 2014/2015 ski season (including Canyons for both the current and prior year, which prior year includes a portion of pass sales that occurred before the Canyons transaction in May 2013) have increased approximately 14% in units and increased approximately 18% in sales dollars, compared to the prior year period ended September 22, 2013. We cannot predict if this favorable trend will continue through the fall 2014 pass sales campaign, nor can we predict the overall impact that season pass sales will have on lift revenue for the 2014/2015 ski season.
In Fiscal 2014, our lift revenue was favorably impacted by price increases at our mountain resorts that were implemented for the 2013/2014 ski season. Prices for the 2014/2015 ski season have not yet been finalized; and as such, there can be no assurances as to the level of price increases, if any, which will occur and the impact that pricing may have on visitation or revenue.
Our Fiscal 2014 results for our Mountain and Lodging segments showed strong improvement over Fiscal 2013 largely due to strong pass sales growth for the 2013/2014 ski season, an increase in overall visitation at our Colorado resorts which experienced improved snowfall conditions compared to the 2012/2013 ski season, and improved ancillary guest spend in our ski school, dining and retail/rental operations, as well as the addition of Canyons. However, our Fiscal 2014 results were negatively impacted by very poor conditions in the Tahoe region during the 2013/2014 ski season. We cannot predict whether snowfall levels will return to historical averages at our Tahoe resorts or that our Colorado and Utah resorts will experience normal snowfall conditions for the upcoming 2014/2015 ski season nor can we estimate the impact there may be to advance bookings, guest travel, season pass sales, lift revenue (excluding season passes), retail/rental sales or other ancillary services revenue next ski season as a result of past snowfall conditions.
Although many key economic indicators have improved recently including growth in the U.S. stock markets, improved consumer confidence and declines in the unemployment rate, the U.S. economy has struggled to gain momentum, particularly in the first quarter of calendar year 2014. Additionally, many economies outside of the United States are challenged with political unrest and structural changes resulting in declining or slowing growth in key economic indicators. Given these economic trends and uncertainties, we cannot predict what the impact will be on overall travel and leisure or more specifically, on our guest visitation, guest spending or other related trends for the upcoming 2014/2015 ski season.
In May 2013, we entered into a long-term lease with Talisker Corporation (“Talisker”) pursuant to which we assumed resort operations of Canyons which includes the ski area and related amenities. In addition to the lease, we entered into ancillary transaction documents setting forth our rights related to, among other things, the ongoing litigation between the then current operator of PCMR and Talisker concerning the validity of a lease of the Talisker-owned land under the ski terrain of PCMR (excluding the base area). On September 11, 2014, we entered into the Purchase Agreement providing for the acquisition of substantially all of the assets related to PCMR. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement and ancillary transaction documents dated the same date, we assumed resort operations of PCMR. In addition, the parties entered into ancillary

40




transaction documents, including an agreement that settled all ongoing litigation related to the validity of the lease of the Talisker-owned land. We expect that PCMR will significantly contribute to our results of operations; however, we cannot predict whether we will realize all of the synergies expected from the operations of Canyons and PCMR nor can we predict all the resources required to integrate PCMR operations and the ultimate impact Canyons and PCMR will have on our future results of operations, including the impact that the addition of PCMR will have on the fair value of future  participating contingent payments as provided for under the long-term lease, which may be material.
As of July 31, 2014, we had $44.4 million in cash and cash equivalents, as well as $333.2 million available under the revolver component of our Credit Agreement (which represents the total commitment of $400.0 million less certain letters of credit outstanding of $66.8 million), which was amended and restated in March 2014. However, the cash purchase price of $182.5 million for the acquisition of PCMR was funded through borrowings under the revolver portion of our Credit Agreement. Key modifications to the Credit Agreement included, among other things, the extension of the maturity on the Credit Agreement from January 2016 to March 2019 and the expansion of baskets for improved flexibility in the Company’s ability to incur debt, and make investments and distributions. In July 2014, we redeemed $175.0 million of the 6.50% Notes, resulting in $215.0 million of the 6.50% Notes remaining outstanding as of July 31, 2014. Additionally, we believe that the terms of our 6.50% Notes and our Credit Agreement allow for sufficient flexibility in our ability to make future acquisitions, investments, distributions to stockholders and incur additional debt. This, combined with our completed real estate projects where the proceeds from future real estate closings on The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail, and One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge are expected to significantly exceed future carrying costs, and the continued positive cash flow from operating activities of our Mountain and Lodging segments (primarily occurring during our second and third fiscal quarters) less capital expenditures has and is anticipated to continue to provide us with significant liquidity. We believe our liquidity will allow us to consider strategic investments and other forms of returning value to our stockholders including the continued payment of a quarterly cash dividend.
Real Estate Reported EBITDA is highly dependent on, among other things, the timing of closings on condominium units available for sale, which determines when revenue and associated cost of sales is recognized. Changes to the anticipated timing or mix of closing on one or more real estate projects, or unit closings within a real estate project, could materially impact Real Estate Reported EBITDA for a particular quarter or fiscal year. As of July 31, 2014, we had 14 units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail and 18 units (of which two units sold subsequent to July 31, 2014) at One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge available for sale. We cannot predict the ultimate number of units that we will sell, the ultimate price we will receive, or when the units will sell, although we currently anticipate the selling process will take two to three years to complete. Additionally, if a prolonged weakness in the real estate market or general economic conditions were to occur we may have to adjust our selling prices more than currently anticipated in an effort to sell and close on units available for sale. However, our risk associated with adjusting selling prices to levels that may not be acceptable to us is partially mitigated by the fact that we do generate cash flow from placing unsold units into our rental program until such time selling prices are at acceptable levels to us. Furthermore, if weakness in the real estate market were to persist for multiple years, thus requiring us to sell remaining units below anticipated pricing levels (including any sales concessions and discounts) for the remaining inventory of units, it may result in an impairment charge, particularly for One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge project (see Critical Accounting Policies in this section of this Form 10-K).
In accordance with GAAP, we test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually as well as on an interim basis to the extent factors or indicators become apparent that could reduce the fair value of our reporting units or indefinite-lived intangible assets below book value. We also evaluate long-lived assets for potential impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of our goodwill by estimating the future discounted cash flows of our reporting units and terminal values of the businesses using projected future levels of income as well as business trends, prospects and market and economic conditions. We evaluate the recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based upon estimated future revenue streams, and we evaluate long-lived assets based upon estimated undiscounted future cash flows. Our Fiscal 2014 annual impairment test did not result in a goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment (see "Critical Accounting Policies" in this section of this Form 10-K). However, if lower than projected levels of cash flows were to occur due to prolonged abnormal weather conditions or a prolonged weakness in general economic conditions, among other risks, it could cause less than expected growth and/or a reduction in terminal values and cash flows and could result in an impairment charge attributable to certain goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and/or long-lived

41




assets (particularly related to our Colorado Lodging operations), negatively impacting our results of operations and stockholders' equity.

Results of Operations
Summary
Shown below is a summary of operating results for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012 (in thousands):
 
 
Year Ended July 31,
  
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Mountain Reported EBITDA
$
252,050

 
$
228,699

 
$
198,908

Lodging Reported EBITDA
16,724

 
12,161

 
6,353

Resort Reported EBITDA
268,774

 
240,860

 
205,261

Real Estate Reported EBITDA
(7,040
)
 
(9,106
)
 
(16,007
)
Income before provision for income taxes
44,072

 
59,229

 
27,092

Net income attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc.
$
28,478

 
$
37,743

 
$
16,453






42




Mountain Segment
Mountain segment operating results for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012 are presented by category as follows (in thousands, except ETP):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage
 
Year Ended July 31,
 
Increase/(Decrease)
  
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014/2013
 
2013/2012
Net Mountain revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lift
$
447,271

 
$
390,820

 
$
342,500

 
14.4
 %
 
14.1
%
Ski school
109,442

 
95,254

 
84,292

 
14.9
 %
 
13.0
%
Dining
89,892

 
81,175

 
68,376

 
10.7
 %
 
18.7
%
Retail/rental
210,387

 
199,418

 
181,772

 
5.5
 %
 
9.7
%
Other
106,581

 
100,847

 
89,668

 
5.7
 %
 
12.5
%
Total Mountain net revenue
$
963,573

 
$
867,514

 
$
766,608

 
11.1
 %
 
13.2
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mountain operating expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labor and labor-related benefits
$
264,849

 
$
238,479

 
$
207,269

 
11.1
 %
 
15.1
%
Retail cost of sales
87,929

 
88,500

 
79,657

 
(0.6
)%
 
11.1
%
Resort related fees
47,508

 
41,970

 
39,557

 
13.2
 %
 
6.1
%
General and administrative
136,133

 
119,938

 
107,483

 
13.5
 %
 
11.6
%
Other
176,366

 
150,819

 
134,612

 
16.9
 %
 
12.0
%
Total Mountain operating expense
$
712,785

 
$
639,706

 
$
568,578

 
11.4
 %
 
12.5
%
Mountain equity investment income, net
1,262

 
891

 
878

 
41.6
 %
 
1.5
%
Mountain Reported EBITDA
$
252,050

 
$
228,699

 
$
198,908

 
10.2
 %
 
15.0
%
Total skier visits
7,688

 
6,977

 
6,144

 
10.2
 %
 
13.6
%
ETP
$
58.18

 
$
56.02

 
$
55.75

 
3.9
 %
 
0.5
%

Mountain Reported EBITDA includes $10.3 million, $9.0 million and $7.6 million of stock-based compensation expense for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively.
Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013
Overall, Fiscal 2014 results reflect an increase in Mountain net revenue of $96.1 million, or 11.1%, compared to Fiscal 2013. This increase was primarily driven by strong pass sales growth for the 2013/2014 ski season, improved results for our Colorado resorts, including particularly strong results in the spring break holiday time periods, which resulted in an increase in visitation of 8.4% for the 2013/2014 ski season compared to the 2012/2013 ski season, combined with an improvement in yields per skier visit in ancillary guest spend in ski school, dining and retail/rental operations at our Colorado resorts and the addition of Canyons (transaction entered into in May 2013). However, our results were negatively impacted by very poor conditions in the Tahoe region during the 2013/2014 ski season. These challenging conditions resulted in a decrease in skier visitation at our Tahoe resorts of 16.2% for the 2013/2014 ski season compared to the prior year.
Lift revenue increased $56.4 million, or 14.4%, from prior year, resulting from a $29.6 million, or 20.1%, increase in season pass revenue, as well as a $26.8 million, or 11.1%, increase in lift revenue excluding season pass revenue. The increase in season pass revenue was driven by a combination of both an increase in units sold and pricing and was favorably impacted by our entry into the Utah ski market with the addition of Canyons and the first full season of pass sales in our Urban ski area markets. The increase in lift revenue excluding season pass revenue was driven by an increase in ETP excluding season pass holders of 7.5%, along with higher visitation excluding season pass holders at our Colorado resorts combined with incremental revenue of $18.8 million from Canyons. These increases were partially offset by lower lift revenue excluding season pass revenue at our Tahoe resorts which was driven by a decline in visitation excluding season pass holders. Total ETP increased $2.16, or 3.9%, due primarily to price increases in both our lead/window lift ticket products and season pass products, partially offset by a higher mix of season pass revenue which has a lower associated ETP.

43




Ski school revenue increased $14.2 million, or 14.9%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013, with ski school revenue at our Colorado resorts increasing $8.3 million, or 10.6%, and incremental revenue of $7.1 million from Canyons, partially offset by declines in ski school revenue of $1.5 million, or 8.6%, at our Tahoe resorts, driven by a decline in skier visitation as discussed above.
Dining revenue for Fiscal 2014 increased $8.7 million, or 10.7%, compared to Fiscal 2013. This increase was primarily attributable to our Colorado resorts generating a $6.6 million, or 11.6%, increase in revenue due to increased skier visitation, higher yields per skier visit and improved summer visitation. Additionally, dining revenue was favorably impacted by incremental dining revenue of $4.5 million at Canyons. Dining revenue at our Tahoe resorts decreased $4.1 million, or 18.0%, compared to Fiscal 2013 driven by the decrease in skier visitation and fewer on-mountain locations being open during the first half of the ski season due to limited available ski terrain combined with reduced operations for on-mountain locations during the second half of the ski season as a result of lower volumes.
Retail/rental revenue increased $11.0 million, or 5.5%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013 as we experienced an increase in both retail sales of $5.5 million, or 3.6%, and rental revenue of $5.5 million, or 11.4%. The increase in retail sales was driven by an increase in sales volume at stores proximate to our Colorado resorts, as well as our Colorado front range stores, incremental retail sales generated by Hoigaard's (our mid-west retailer acquired in April 2013) and the addition of Canyons and Urban ski areas. These retail sales increases were partially offset by a decrease in on-line sales due to the shutdown of our on-line retail platform as we transition to a different approach to on-line sales, and lower sales at stores proximate to our Tahoe resorts and Any Mountain stores located in the San Francisco Bay Area, which were impacted by the poor snowfall in the Tahoe region. The increase in rental revenue was primarily driven by stores proximate to our Colorado resorts, which experienced higher volumes due to increased skier visitation and the addition of Canyons and Urban ski areas, partially offset by revenue declines at stores proximate to our Tahoe resorts and Any Mountain stores, which were negatively impacted by poor snowfall as previously discussed.
Other revenue mainly consists of summer visitation and other mountain activities revenue, employee housing revenue, guest services revenue, commercial leasing revenue, marketing and internet advertising revenue, private club revenue (which includes both club dues and amortization of initiation fees), municipal services revenue and other recreation activity revenue. For Fiscal 2014, other revenue increased $5.7 million, or 5.7%, compared to Fiscal 2013, primarily due to incremental revenue from Canyons of $1.7 million, as well as increases in summer activities revenue, guest services revenue, employee housing revenue and private club revenue, partially offset by declines in marketing and internet advertising revenue.
Operating expense for Fiscal 2014 increased $73.1 million, or 11.4%, compared to Fiscal 2013, which includes incremental operating expense from Canyons of $36.8 million (including current year Canyons transaction, integration and PCMR litigation expense of $9.8 million, net of prior year Canyons transaction and integration expense of $5.5 million). Excluding these expenses, operating expense increased $36.3 million, or 5.7%. Labor and labor-related benefits (excluding Canyons) increased $12.1 million, or 5.1%, primarily due to normal wage adjustments, higher bonus expense and increased staffing levels at our Colorado resorts to support higher volumes primarily in mountain operations, ski school, on-mountain dining, summer operations and higher store labor primarily due to new retail stores. Resort related fees (excluding Canyons) increased $2.7 million, or 6.5%, due to overall increases in revenue upon which those fees are based. General and administrative expense (excluding Canyons) increased $10.2 million, or 8.5%, primarily due to higher Mountain segment component of allocated corporate costs including increased sales and marketing expense and higher employee medical costs. Other expense (excluding Canyons operating, transaction, integration and PCMR litigation expenses from both current and prior year) increased $13.4 million, or 9.2%, which was driven by higher operating expenses including food and beverage cost of sales, supplies expense and utilities expense. Additionally, retail cost of sales decreased $0.6 million, or 0.6%, compared to an increase in retail sales of $5.5 million, or 3.6%, as a result of improvement in the gross profit margin percentage at our retail outlets combined with a decline in on-line sales due to the shutdown of our on-line retail platform (as discussed above) which had associated lower gross profit margins.
Mountain equity investment income, net primarily includes our share of income from the operations of a real estate brokerage joint venture. The increase in equity investment income for Fiscal 2014 is primarily due to increased commissions earned by the brokerage due to a higher level of real estate closures compared to Fiscal 2013.

Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012
Overall, Fiscal 2013 results reflect an increase in Mountain net revenue of $100.9 million, or 13.2%, compared to Fiscal 2012 driven by higher overall visitation due to improved weather conditions during the 2012/2013 ski season compared to the 2011/2012 ski season. Our Fiscal 2013 results also benefited from higher pricing, increased average guest spend on ancillary

44




services and higher pass sales. Excluding the incremental revenue from the Acquisitions (as defined below) of $29.3 million, revenue increased $71.6 million, or 9.3%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012. Mountain Reported EBITDA for Fiscal 2013 increased $29.8 million, or 15.0%, compared to Fiscal 2012, and includes incremental positive EBITDA of $5.5 million from the acquisitions of Kirkwood (acquired in April 2012) and the Urban ski areas (acquired in December 2012), and $8.4 million of negative EBITDA (including $5.5 million of transaction and transition related costs) related to the Canyons transaction (collectively, the "Acquisitions"). Our Colorado resorts experienced strong results from the peak holiday periods of Christmas through Spring Break and Easter during the 2012/2013 ski season compared to the 2011/2012 ski season; however, these results were tempered by poor snowfall and unseasonably warm temperatures which occurred from the start of the 2012/2013 ski season through the pre-Christmas holiday period which adversely impacted skier visitation to our Colorado resorts during this period. As such, skier visitation to our Colorado resorts increased 4.0% overall for the 2012/2013 ski season compared to the 2011/2012 ski season. Our Tahoe resorts experienced significantly better snowfall and weather conditions during first half of the 2012/2013 ski season compared to the 2011/2012 ski season which contributed to a significant increase in skier visitation to the Tahoe region combined with the addition of Kirkwood; however, the early momentum at our Tahoe resorts was slowed by dry conditions and warm temperatures experienced throughout the latter half of the 2012/2013 ski season. Overall, our Tahoe resorts saw an increase in skier visitation of 32.1% (including Kirkwood) compared to the 2011/2012 ski season.
Lift revenue increased $48.3 million, or 14.1%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, resulting from a $36.4 million, or 17.6% increase in lift revenue excluding season pass revenue, as well as a $11.9 million, or 8.8%, increase in season pass revenue. The increase in lift revenue excluding season pass revenue was driven by an increase in visitation excluding season pass holders of 14.5%, and an increase in ETP, excluding season pass holders, of $2.01 or 2.7%. Excluding the Acquisitions, lift revenue excluding season pass holders increased $26.4 million, or 12.8%, driven by a 5.7% increase in visitation excluding season pass holders and an increase in ETP excluding season pass holders of $4.94, or 6.7%. The increase in ETP excluding season pass holders was primarily due to increases in pricing. The increase in season pass revenue was driven by a combination of both an increase in units sold and pricing. Total ETP was relatively flat compared to prior year due primarily to an increase in visitation from our season pass holders offset by price increases in both season passes and daily lift tickets.
Ski school revenue increased $11.0 million, or 13.0%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, with our Colorado resorts ski school revenue increasing $5.7 million, or 7.9%, and our Tahoe resorts (including Kirkwood) ski school revenue increasing $4.8 million, or 39.6%, compared to prior year. Ski school revenue benefited from the increase in skier visitation at both our Colorado and Tahoe resorts and an increase in yield per skier visit of 2.1%. Excluding the Acquisitions, ski school revenue increased $9.1 million, or 10.8%, and yield per skier visit increased 4.4%.
Dining revenue for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, increased $12.8 million, or 18.7%, with our Tahoe resorts (including Kirkwood) generating an increase of $6.1 million, or 36.8%, due to incremental Kirkwood revenue of $3.2 million, an increase in skier visitation and an increase in yield per skier visit. Dining revenue at our Colorado resorts increased $4.8 million, or 9.3%, primarily attributable to increased skier visitation and an increase in yield per skier visit during the 2012/2013 ski season, as well as improved summer visitation. Excluding the Acquisitions, dining revenue increased $7.7 million, or 11.4%, and yield per skier visit increased 6.5% for the 2012/2013 ski season.
Retail/rental revenue increased $17.6 million, or 9.7%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, which was driven by an increase in retail sales of $11.9 million, or 8.6%, and an increase in rental revenues of $5.7 million, or 13.4%. The increase in retail sales was primarily attributable to our Any Mountain stores (in the San Francisco bay area) along with our stores proximate to our Tahoe resorts, at which sales increased a combined $5.5 million due to increased skier visitation during the 2012/2013 ski season and the addition of Kirkwood; stores proximate to our Colorado resorts which were up a combined $3.7 million; an increase in sales from our on-line retailer of $2.8 million; all of which was partially offset by decreases at our Colorado front range stores which were negatively impacted by unfavorable weather conditions during the early 2012/2013 ski season. The increase in rental revenue was primarily driven by stores proximate to our Tahoe resorts (including Kirkwood), which increased $2.2 million; our Colorado resort stores, which increased by $0.9 million; and the addition of the Urban ski areas, which contributed $1.2 million. Excluding the Acquisitions, retail/rental revenue increased $13.6 million, or 7.5%.
Other revenue mainly consists of summer visitation and other mountain activities revenue, employee housing revenue, guest services revenue, commercial leasing revenue, marketing and internet advertising revenue, private club revenue (which includes both club dues and amortization of initiation fees), municipal services revenue and other recreation activity revenue. For Fiscal 2013, other revenue increased $11.2 million, or 12.5%, compared to Fiscal 2012, primarily due to incremental internet advertising revenue from Skiinfo of $2.5 million; increased base area services and parking revenue of $2.2 million; an increase in strategic alliance marketing revenue of $2.0 million; an increase in summer activities revenue of $1.4 million due to increased summer visitation and increased employee housing revenue.
Operating expense increased $71.1 million, or 12.5%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, which includes incremental operating expense from the Acquisitions of $27.2 million and transaction related fees associated with the Urban ski areas and

45




Canyons transactions of $5.0 million. Excluding Acquisitions related expenses, operating expense increased $38.9 million, or 6.8%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012. Labor and labor-related benefits (excluding incremental expense from the Acquisitions) increased $18.7 million, or 9.0%, primarily due to normal wage adjustments, higher bonus expense, increased staffing levels to support higher volumes primarily in ski school, mountain operations, on-mountain dining, summer operations and higher store labor primarily due to new retail stores. Retail cost of sales (excluding incremental expense from the Acquisitions) increased $7.6 million, or 9.5%, primarily due to an increase in overall retail sales, and higher cost of sales margins due primarily to an increase in on-line sales which generate a lower gross profit margin and more discounting at our city stores. General and administrative expense (excluding incremental expense from the Acquisitions) increased $8.3 million, or 7.7%, primarily due to higher Mountain segment component of allocated corporate costs including increased sales and marketing expense and higher costs associated with employee housing, and a shift in allocated corporate expenses to the Mountain segment, partially offset by lower employee medical costs. Resort related fees (excluding incremental expense from the Acquisitions) increased $1.6 million, or 4.0%, due to overall increases in revenue upon which those fees are based. Other expense (excluding incremental expense from the Acquisitions) increased $2.7 million, or 2.0%, which was driven by higher operating expenses including food and beverage cost of sales and supplies expense, partially offset by lower utilities expense.
Mountain equity investment income, net primarily includes our share of income from the operations of a real estate brokerage joint venture.

46






Lodging Segment
Lodging segment operating results for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012 are presented by category as follows (in thousands, except ADR and RevPAR):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage
 
Year Ended July 31,
 
Increase/(Decrease)
  
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014/2013
 
2013/2012
Lodging net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned hotel rooms
$
53,199

 
$
48,449

 
$
45,131

 
9.8
 %
 
7.4
 %
Managed condominium rooms
55,214

 
44,486

 
40,473

 
24.1
 %
 
9.9
 %
Dining
44,023

 
33,809

 
29,980

 
30.2
 %
 
12.8
 %
Transportation
22,006

 
19,602

 
18,860

 
12.3
 %
 
3.9
 %
Golf
15,410

 
15,237

 
15,159

 
1.1
 %
 
0.5
 %
Other
42,204

 
38,562

 
38,383

 
9.4
 %
 
0.5
 %
 
232,056

 
200,145

 
187,986

 
15.9
 %
 
6.5
 %
Payroll cost reimbursements
10,231

 
10,829

 
22,637

 
(5.5
)%
 
(52.2
)%
Total Lodging net revenue
$
242,287

 
$
210,974

 
$
210,623

 
14.8
 %
 
0.2
 %
Lodging operating expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labor and labor-related benefits
$
105,288

 
$
92,737

 
$
88,777

 
13.5
 %
 
4.5
 %
General and administrative
32,109

 
28,446

 
29,280

 
12.9
 %
 
(2.8
)%
Other
77,935

 
66,801

 
63,576

 
16.7
 %
 
5.1
 %
 
215,332

 
187,984

 
181,633

 
14.5
 %
 
3.5
 %
Reimbursed payroll costs
10,231

 
10,829

 
22,637

 
(5.5
)%
 
(52.2
)%
Total Lodging operating expense
$
225,563

 
$
198,813

 
$
204,270

 
13.5
 %
 
(2.7
)%
Lodging Reported EBITDA
$
16,724

 
$
12,161

 
$
6,353

 
37.5
 %
 
91.4
 %
Owned hotel statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ADR
$
211.18

 
$
203.61

 
$
205.02

 
3.7
%
 
(0.7
)%
RevPar
$
134.60

 
$
122.77

 
$
114.73

 
9.6
%
 
7.0
 %
Managed condominium statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ADR
$
339.29

 
$
333.98

 
$
320.30

 
1.6
%
 
4.3
 %
RevPar
$
95.30

 
$
83.48

 
$
78.65

 
14.2
%
 
6.1
 %
Owned hotel and managed condominium statistics (combined):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ADR
$
271.23

 
$
264.36

 
$
260.04

 
2.6
%
 
1.7
 %
RevPar
$
108.39

 
$
96.14

 
$
90.36

 
12.7
%
 
6.4
 %

The Lodging segment ADR and RevPAR statistics presented above for Fiscal 2014 and Fiscal 2013 exclude the managed condominium rooms at Canyons (assumed in May 2013) that do not have comparable results for Fiscal 2013 and 2012.
Lodging Reported EBITDA includes $2.2 million, $1.9 million and $1.7 million of stock-based compensation expense for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively.
Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013
Total Lodging net revenue (excluding payroll cost reimbursements) for Fiscal 2014 increased $31.9 million, or 15.9%, as compared to Fiscal 2013, including $16.3 million of incremental revenue from the addition of Canyons. Excluding the operations of Canyons, total Lodging net revenue (before payroll cost reimbursements) increased $15.6 million, or 7.8%, primarily due to an increase in transient guest visitation to our Colorado lodging properties due to increased skier visitation

47




(discussed in the mountain section), an increase in revenue at our mountain resort properties from improved summer visitation and increased group business at our Colorado resort properties.

Revenue from owned hotel rooms increased $4.8 million, or 9.8%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013. Owned room revenue was primarily driven by an increase of $3.7 million from our Colorado lodging properties, resulting from an increase in group business and an increase in transient guest visitation attributable to increased skier visits at our Colorado resorts during the 2013/2014 ski season and improved summer visitation at our Colorado resorts. In addition, owned hotel room revenue was favorably impacted by an increase in occupancy and ADR at GTLC in the fourth quarter of Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013. Overall, owned occupancy increased by 3.4 percentage points and RevPAR increased 9.6%. Revenue from managed condominium rooms increased $10.7 million, or 24.1%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013, and was attributable to $7.1 million of incremental revenue from managed condominium units at Canyons, an increase in transient guest visitation at our managed condominium rooms in Colorado due to increased skier visitation, as well as an increase in group business at our Colorado resort properties.

Dining revenue for Fiscal 2014 increased $10.2 million, or 30.2%, compared to Fiscal 2013, primarily due to $7.6 million in incremental Canyons dining revenue, as well as increased dining revenue from our Vail and Breckenridge mountain resort properties and an increase in group business at our Keystone resort. Transportation revenue increased $2.4 million, or 12.3%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013 primarily due to an increase in total passengers of 15.1%. Other revenue for Fiscal 2014 increased $3.6 million, or 9.4%, as compared to Fiscal 2013, primarily due to an increase in conference services provided to our group business at our Keystone resort and Canyons, increased spa revenue generated by our Colorado mountain properties and Canyons, increased employee housing revenue, an increase in revenue from our central reservations booking services, and increased retail and ancillary revenue from GTLC (during the fourth quarter of Fiscal 2014) and Canyons. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in ancillary revenue at GTLC during the first quarter of Fiscal 2014 due to the early closure in August 2013 of the Colter Bay Marina due to low water levels.

Operating expense (excluding reimbursed payroll costs) increased $27.3 million, or 14.5%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013. Labor and labor-related benefits increased $12.6 million, or 13.5%, resulting from incremental labor costs associated with the Canyons, normal wage adjustments, higher staffing levels associated with increased occupancy, and increased staffing for conference services provided to our group business. Other expense increased $11.1 million, or 16.7%, primarily due to incremental expenses associated with Canyons, and higher variable operating costs including food and beverage cost of sales, repairs and maintenance, supplies, travel agent commissions and credit card fees. General and administrative expense increased $3.7 million, or 12.9%, for Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013 due to higher allocated corporate costs, including an increase in expenses from our central reservations booking services, and increased marketing and sales expenses.

Revenue from payroll cost reimbursements and the corresponding reimbursed payroll costs relates to payroll costs at managed hotel properties where we are the employer and all payroll costs are reimbursed by the owners of the properties under contractual arrangements. Since the reimbursements are made based upon the costs incurred with no added margin, the revenue and corresponding expense have no effect on our Lodging Reported EBITDA.

Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012
Total Lodging net revenue (excluding payroll cost reimbursements) for Fiscal 2013 increased $12.2 million, or 6.5%, as compared to Fiscal 2012, including incremental revenue of $1.9 million from Flagg Ranch (a NPS concessionaire contract that was awarded in November 2011) and $2.8 million from the addition of Canyons in May 2013.

Revenue from owned hotel rooms increased $3.3 million, or 7.4%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, which includes $1.0 million of incremental room revenue from Flagg Ranch for the three months ended October 31, 2012. Owned room revenue was also positively impacted by our Colorado lodging properties, which increased $2.2 million, resulting from improved summer visitation in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012 and an increase in transient guest visitation attributable to increased skier visits at our Colorado mountain resorts during the 2012/2013 ski season. Owned occupancy increased by 4.3 percentage points and RevPAR increased 7.0%. The increase in occupancy and RevPAR is primarily due to an increase in transient business in Breckenridge and transient and group business at our Keystone resort properties. Revenue from managed condominium rooms increased $4.0 million, or 9.9%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, and was attributable to $1.1 million of incremental revenue from managed condominium units at Canyons, additional managed condominium units at Kirkwood, and an increase in transient guest visitation at our managed condominium rooms in Colorado and the Tahoe region due to increased skier visitation during the 2012/2013 ski season compared to the 2011/2012 ski season.


48




Dining revenue for Fiscal 2013 increased $3.8 million, or 12.8%, compared to Fiscal 2012, primarily due to a $1.2 million increase in group business at Keystone, increased dining revenue at The Arrabelle and the DoubleTree in Breckenridge due to an increase in transient and group visitation, increased dining revenue at GTLC, as well as incremental dining revenue from Canyons and Flagg Ranch, partially offset by a decline in Vail lodging banquet revenue. Transportation revenue increased $0.7 million, or 3.9%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012 primarily due to an increase in total passengers of 8.7%, partially offset by a 4.4% decline in revenue per passenger driven by competitive pricing strategies. Other revenue for Fiscal 2013 increased $0.2 million, or 0.5%, as compared to Fiscal 2012, primarily due to an increase in conference services provided to our group business, an increase in retail and ancillary revenue from GTLC and Flagg Ranch, and an increase in strategic alliance marketing revenue, partially offset by lower revenue from managed hotel properties as a result of the previously announced RockResorts reorganization plan.

Operating expense (excluding reimbursed payroll costs) increased $6.4 million, or 3.5%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012. Labor and labor-related benefits increased $4.0 million, or 4.5%, resulting from normal wage adjustments, an increase in contract labor associated with increased occupancy, increased conference services provided to our group business, and incremental labor costs associated with Canyons and Flagg Ranch of $1.7 million, partially offset by a reduction in overhead labor associated with the RockResorts reorganization plan. Other expense increased $3.2 million, or 5.1%, primarily due to incremental expenses associated with Canyons and Flagg Ranch of $1.6 million, higher variable operating costs including higher food and beverage cost of sales, partially offset by a decrease in reimbursable costs (other than payroll) from managed hotel properties due to the RockResorts reorganization plan. General and administrative expense decreased $0.8 million, or 2.8%, for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, as a result of the RockResorts reorganization plan, partially offset by higher allocated corporate costs.

Revenue from payroll cost reimbursements and the corresponding reimbursed payroll costs relates to payroll costs at managed hotel properties where we are the employer and all payroll costs are reimbursed by the owners of the properties under contractual arrangements. Since the reimbursements are made based upon the costs incurred with no added margin, the revenue and corresponding expense have no effect on our Lodging Reported EBITDA. The decrease in revenue from payroll cost reimbursements and the corresponding decrease in reimbursed payroll costs for Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012 was due to a reduction in the number of managed hotel properties as previously announced under the RockResorts reorganization plan.

49





Real Estate Segment
Real Estate segment operating results for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012 are presented by category as follows (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage
 
Year Ended July 31,
 
Increase/(Decrease)
  
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014/2013
 
2013/2012
Total Real Estate net revenue
$
48,786

 
$
42,309

 
$
47,163

 
15.3
 %
 
(10.3
)%
Real Estate operating expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of sales (including sales commissions)
41,274

 
35,503

 
39,153

 
16.3
 %
 
(9.3
)%
Other
14,552

 
22,587

 
24,017

 
(35.6
)%
 
(6.0
)%
Total Real Estate operating expense
55,826

 
58,090

 
63,170

 
(3.9
)%
 
(8.0
)%
Gain on sale of real property

 
6,675

 

 
(100
)%
 
nm

Real Estate Reported EBITDA
$
(7,040
)
 
$
(9,106
)
 
$
(16,007
)
 
22.7
 %
 
43.1
 %
Real Estate Reported EBITDA includes $1.7 million, $1.4 million and $2.6 million of stock-based compensation expense for Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively.
Our Real Estate operating revenue is primarily determined by the timing of closings and the mix of real estate sold in any given period. Different types of projects have different revenue and profit margins; therefore, as the real estate inventory mix changes it can greatly impact Real Estate segment net revenue, operating expense and Real Estate Reported EBITDA.
Fiscal 2014
Real Estate segment net revenue for Fiscal 2014 was driven primarily by the closing of eight condominium units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail ($32.7 million of revenue with an average selling price per unit of $4.1 million and an average price per square foot of $1,367) and eleven condominium units at One Ski Hill Place ($13.9 million of revenue with an average selling price per unit of $1.3 million and an average price per square foot of $988). The average price per square foot for both projects is driven by their premier locations and the comprehensive and exclusive amenities related to these projects. In addition, Real Estate net revenue included $1.4 million of rental revenue from placing certain of our unsold units into our rental program.

Operating expense for Fiscal 2014 included cost of sales of $38.5 million resulting from the closing of eight condominium units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail (average cost per square foot of $1,120) and from the closing of eleven condominium units at One Ski Hill Place (average cost per square foot of $831). The cost per square foot for both these projects is reflective of the high-end features and amenities and high construction costs associated with mountain resort development. Additionally, sales commissions of approximately $2.6 million were incurred commensurate with revenue recognized. Other operating expense of $14.6 million (including $1.7 million of stock-based compensation expense) was primarily comprised of general and administrative costs which includes marketing expense for the real estate available for sale (including those units that have not yet closed), carrying costs for units available for sale and overhead costs, such as labor and labor-related benefits and allocated corporate costs. In addition, other segment operating expense includes $3.8 million (recorded as a credit to other expense) for the recovery of project costs on previously sold units.
 
Fiscal 2013
Real Estate segment net revenue for Fiscal 2013 was driven primarily by the closing of ten condominium units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail ($25.7 million of revenue with an average selling price per unit of $2.6 million and an average price per square foot of $1,195) and twelve condominium units at One Ski Hill Place ($12.9 million of revenue with an average selling price per unit of $1.1 million and an average price per square foot of $924). In addition, Real Estate net revenue included $1.5 million of rental revenue from placing certain of our unsold units into our rental program. Additionally, during Fiscal 2013 we recorded a gain on sale of real property of $6.7 million (net of $4.4 million in related cost of sales) for a land parcel at the base of Breckenridge's Peak 8 which sold for $11.1 million.


50




Operating expense for Fiscal 2013 included cost of sales of $32.0 million resulting from the closing of ten condominium units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail (average cost per square foot of $987) and from the closing of twelve condominium units at One Ski Hill Place (average cost per square foot of $774). Additionally, sales commissions of approximately $2.4 million were incurred commensurate with revenue recognized. Other operating expense of $22.6 million (including $1.4 million of stock-based compensation expense) was primarily comprised of general and administrative costs which includes marketing expense for the real estate available for sale (including those units that have not yet closed), carrying costs for units available for sale and overhead costs, such as labor and labor-related benefits and allocated corporate costs which were favorably impacted by a shift in allocated corporate costs to the Mountain and Lodging segments from Fiscal 2012. In addition, included in other segment operating expense is a $2.5 million charge recorded in the fourth quarter of Fiscal 2013 related to a legal dispute on a previously completed project.

Fiscal 2012
Real Estate segment net revenue for Fiscal 2012 was driven primarily by the closing of thirteen condominium units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail ($33.2 million of revenue with an average selling price per unit of $2.6 million and an average price per square foot of $1,146) and seven condominium units at One Ski Hill Place ($8.6 million of revenue with an average selling price per unit of $1.2 million and an average price per square foot of $975). In addition to the revenue generated by the closing of units as noted above, Real Estate net revenue also included $1.5 million of rental revenue from placing certain of our unsold units into our rental program.

Operating expense for Fiscal 2012 included cost of sales of $35.4 million resulting from the closing of thirteen condominium units at The Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail (average cost per square foot of $976) and from the closing of seven condominium units at One Ski Hill Place (average cost per square foot of $808). Additionally, sales commissions of approximately $2.5 million were incurred commensurate with revenue recognized. Other operating expense of $24.0 million (including $2.6 million of stock-based compensation expense) was primarily comprised of general and administrative costs which includes marketing expense for the real estate available for sale (including those units that have not yet closed), carrying costs for units available for sale and overhead costs, such as labor and labor-related benefits and allocated corporate costs. In addition, included in other segment operating expense is a $1.4 million charge recorded due to a dispute with contractors and an insurance carrier over the recovery of costs incurred by us in the fourth quarter of Fiscal 2012 for remediation work on a previously completed project. This charge was partially offset by the receipt (in the fourth quarter of Fiscal 2012) of a $1.2 million settlement for alleged damages caused by the architect on the previously completed project (included as a credit to other expense in Fiscal 2012).



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Other Items
In addition to segment operating results, the following material items contribute to our overall financial position.
Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization expense for both Fiscal 2014 and Fiscal 2013 increased over the applicable prior fiscal year primarily due to an increase in the fixed asset base due to incremental capital expenditures and assets assumed in acquisitions.
Change in fair value of contingent consideration. A change in fair value of contingent consideration of $1.4 million was recorded as a charge in Fiscal 2014 related to an increase in the estimated fair value of the participating contingent payments to Talisker in conjunction with the Canyons transaction. The estimated fair value of the contingent consideration is $10.5 million as of July 31, 2014.
Loss on extinguishment of debt. In July 2014, we redeemed $175.0 million of our 6.50% Notes outstanding. As a result, we recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt of $10.8 million in Fiscal 2014 in connection with the redemption. The loss includes an early redemption premium of 4.875%, or $8.5 million, for the portion of the principal redeemed, and a $2.3 million write-off of associated unamortized debt issuance costs.
Interest expense, net. Interest expense for both Fiscal 2014 and Fiscal 2013 increased over the applicable prior fiscal year primarily due to $25.3 million and $5.4 million, respectively, of incremental interest expense related to the Canyons obligation recorded in conjunction with the Canyons transaction entered into in May 2013.
Income taxes. Our effective tax rate was 36.0%, 36.5% and 39.5% in Fiscal 2014, Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively. Our tax provision and effective tax rate are driven primarily by the amount of pre-tax income, which is adjusted for items that are deductible/non-deductible for tax purposes only (i.e. permanent items) and taxable income generated by state jurisdictions that varies from the consolidated pre-tax income. Additionally, the income tax provision recorded for Fiscal 2014, 2013, and 2012, reflects $0.3 million, $0.1 million, and $0.3 million, respectively, of income tax benefits primarily due to a reversal of income tax contingencies resulting from the expiration of the statute of limitations.
In 2005, we amended previously filed tax returns (for the tax years from 1997 through 2002) in an effort to remove restrictions under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code on approximately $73.8 million of NOLs relating to fresh start accounting from our reorganization in 1992. As a result, we requested a refund related to the amended returns in the amount of $6.2 million and have reduced our Federal tax liability in the amount of $19.6 million in subsequent tax returns. In 2006, the IRS completed its examination of our filing position in our amended returns and disallowed our request for refund and our position to remove the restriction on the NOLs. We appealed the examiner's disallowance of the NOLs to the Office of Appeals. In December 2008, the Office of Appeals denied our appeal, as well as a request for mediation. We disagreed with the IRS interpretation disallowing the utilization of the NOLs and in August 2009, filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado seeking recovery of $6.2 million in over payments that were previously denied by the IRS, plus interest. On July 1, 2011, the District Court granted us summary judgment, concluding that the IRS's decision disallowing the utilization of the NOLs was inappropriate. The IRS is entitled to appeal the decision of the District Court to grant the motion for summary judgment and we do not know whether the IRS will do so or, if it does appeal, whether the appeal would be successful. However, at this point, the District Court proceedings have been stayed pending on-going settlement discussions between the parties. We are also a party to two related tax proceedings in the United States Tax Court ("Tax Court") regarding calculation of NOL carryover deductions for tax years 2006, 2007 and 2008. The two proceedings involve substantially the same issues as the litigation in the District Court wherein we disagree with the IRS as to the utilization of NOLs. At this time, however, it is uncertain whether or how the potential resolution of the District Court case may affect these Tax Court proceedings. The trial date for Tax Court proceedings has been continued pending on-going settlement discussions between the parties.
Since the legal proceeding surrounding the utilization of the NOLs has not been fully resolved, including a determination of the amount of refund and the possibility that the District Court’s ruling may be appealed by the IRS, there remains considerable uncertainty of what portion, if any, of the NOLs will be realized, and as such, we have not reflected any of the benefits of the utilization of the NOLs within our financial statements. However, the range of potential reversal of other long-term liabilities and accrued interest and penalties that would be recorded as a benefit to our income tax provision is between zero and $27.6 million.

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Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Measures
The following table reconciles from segment Reported EBITDA to net income attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc. (in thousands):
 
 
Year Ended July 31,
  
2014
 
2013
 
2012
Mountain Reported EBITDA
$
252,050

 
$
228,699

 
$
198,908

Lodging Reported EBITDA
16,724

 
12,161

 
6,353

Resort Reported EBITDA
268,774

 
240,860

 
205,261

Real Estate Reported EBITDA
(7,040
)
 
(9,106
)
 
(16,007
)
Total Reported EBITDA
261,734

 
231,754

 
189,254

Depreciation and amortization
(140,601
)
 
(132,688
)
 
(127,581
)
Loss on disposal of fixed assets, net
(1,208
)
 
(1,222
)
 
(1,464
)
Change in fair value of contingent consideration
(1,400
)
 

 

Investment income, net
375

 
351

 
469

Interest expense, net
(63,997
)
 
(38,966
)
 
(33,586
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(10,831
)
 

 

Income before provision for income taxes
44,072

 
59,229

 
27,092

Provision for income taxes
(15,866
)
 
(21,619
)
 
(10,701
)
Net income
28,206

 
37,610

 
16,391

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
272

 
133

 
62

Net income attributable to Vail Resorts, Inc.
$
28,478

 
$
37,743

 
$
16,453


The following table reconciles Net Debt (defined as long-term debt plus long-term debt due within one year less cash and cash equivalents) (in thousands):
 
 
July 31,
  
2014
 
2013
Long-term debt
$
625,600

 
$
795,928

Long-term debt due within one year
1,022

 
994

Total debt
626,622

 
796,922

Less: cash and cash equivalents
44,406

 
138,604

Net Debt
$
582,216

 
$
658,318


Liquidity and Capital Resources
Significant Sources of Cash
Historically, we have lower cash available as of our fiscal year-end (as well as at the end of our first fiscal quarter of each year) as compared to our second and third fiscal quarter-ends primarily due to the seasonality of our Mountain segment operations. Additionally, cash provided by operating activities can be impacted by the timing or mix of closings on and investment in real estate development projects. We had $44.4 million of cash and cash equivalents as of July 31, 2014, compared to $138.6 million as of July 31, 2013. The decrease in cash and cash equivalents from the prior year is primarily driven by the redemption of $175.0 million of our 6.50% Notes outstanding offset by our cash generated from operating activities. We generated $245.9 million of cash from operating activities during Fiscal 2014 compared to $222.4 million and $185.4 million generated during Fiscal 2013 and Fiscal 2012, respectively. We currently anticipate that our Mountain and Lodging segment operating results will continue to provide a significant source of future operating cash flows (primarily those generated in our second and third fiscal quarters) combined with proceeds from the sale of remaining inventory of real estate available for sale from the completed Ritz-Carlton Residences, Vail and One Ski Hill Place at Breckenridge projects.

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In addition to our $44.4 million of cash and cash equivalents at July 31, 2014, we have $333.2 million available under our Credit Agreement (which represents the total commitment of $400.0 million less certain letters of credit outstanding of $66.8 million).  We believe the Credit Agreement, which matures in 2019, provides adequate flexibility and is priced favorably with any new borrowings currently being priced at LIBOR plus 1.25%.

Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013

We generated $245.9 million of cash from operating activities in Fiscal 2014, an increase of $23.5 million when compared to the $222.4 million of cash generated in Fiscal 2013. The increase in operating cash flows was primarily a result of improved Mountain and Lodging segment operating results in Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013. Additionally, we generated $42.9 million in proceeds from real estate development project closings (net of sales commissions and deposits previously received) in Fiscal 2014 compared to $37.4 million in proceeds (net of sales commissions and deposits previously received) from real estate development project closings that occurred in Fiscal 2013. Additionally impacting cash flow from operating activities in Fiscal 2014 was an income tax refund of $6.8 million, payment of $10.6 million for the early redemption tender premium plus accrued interest on $175.0 million of principal redeemed under our 6.5% Notes, and an increase in accounts receivable.

Cash used in investing activities increased by $9.7 million in Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013, primarily due to a $23.4 million increase in resort capital expenditures during Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013 and the cash receipt of $11.1 million related to the sale of real estate development land at the base of Breckenridge's Peak 8 in Fiscal 2013, partially offset by the acquisition of the Urban ski areas for a combined $20.0 million in Fiscal 2013 and a decrease in payments for commitments in conjunction with the Canyons transaction of $4.2 million.

Cash used in financing activities increased $200.4 million in Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013, primarily due to the early redemption of $175.0 million of principal under our 6.50% Notes in Fiscal 2014, an increase in the amount of cash dividends paid on our common stock of $16.7 million during Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013, payments for commitments in conjunction with the Canyons transaction of $5.7 million in Fiscal 2014, the payment of financing costs associated with the amended and restated Credit Agreement of $2.0 million in Fiscal 2014, as well as a decrease in proceeds from the exercise of stock options of $1.1 million in Fiscal 2014 compared to Fiscal 2013.

Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012

We generated $222.4 million of cash from operating activities in Fiscal 2013, an increase of $37.0 million when compared to the $185.4 million of cash generated in Fiscal 2012. The increase in operating cash flows was primarily a result of improved Mountain and Lodging segment operating results in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012. Cash flow from operations was also favorably impacted by a reduction in inventory and an increase in accrued expenses of $24.0 million, partially offset by an increase in prepaid expenses, other assets and income tax payments of $12.9 million. Additionally, we generated $37.4 million in proceeds from real estate development project closings (net of sales commissions and deposits previously received) in Fiscal 2013 compared to $39.3 million in proceeds (net of sales commissions and deposits previously received) from real estate development project closings that occurred in Fiscal 2012.

Cash used in investing activities decreased by $47.7 million in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, primarily due to a $37.7 million decrease in resort capital expenditures during Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, a decrease in cash used for the acquisitions of businesses of $3.5 million, and the cash receipt of $11.1 million related to the sale of real estate development land at the base of Breckenridge's Peak 8 in Fiscal 2013, partially offset by payments for commitments in conjunction with the Canyons transaction of $5.5 million in Fiscal 2013.

Cash used in financing activities decreased $31.7 million in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012 due to the repurchase of common stock of $30.4 million in Fiscal 2012 and an increase in proceeds from the exercise of stock options and tax benefits recognized on the vesting and exercise of stock awards of $5.4 million during Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, partially offset by an increase in the amount of cash dividends paid on our common stock of $4.1 million in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012.
Significant Uses of Cash
Our cash uses currently include providing for operating expenditures and capital expenditures for assets to be used in resort operations and to a substantially lesser degree future real estate development projects.
We have historically invested significant cash in capital expenditures for our resort operations, and we expect to continue to make significant investments in the future subject to operating performance particularly as it relates to discretionary projects.

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Current planned capital expenditures primarily include investments that will allow us to maintain our high quality standards, as well as certain incremental discretionary improvements at our mountain resorts and Urban ski areas and throughout our owned hotels. We evaluate additional discretionary capital improvements based on an expected level of return on investment. We currently anticipate we will spend approximately $85 million to $95 million of resort capital expenditures for calendar year 2014, which includes approximately $5 million of capital expenditures for summer-related activities. Included in these estimated capital expenditures is approximately $48 million to $53 million of maintenance capital expenditures, which are necessary to maintain appearance and level of service appropriate to our resort operations, including routine replacement of snow grooming equipment and rental fleet equipment. Approximately $32 million was spent for capital expenditures in calendar year 2014 as of July 31, 2014, leaving approximately $53 million to $63 million to spend in the remainder of calendar year 2014. Discretionary expenditures for calendar year 2014 include, among other projects, replacing the Centennial Express Lift at Beaver Creek with a new high speed, state-of-the-art combination gondola and chairlift, upgrading the Colorado SuperChair at Breckenridge with a new six-passenger chairlift, room renovations at The Lodge at Vail, an owned RockResort property, investments in our customer data analytics capabilities and expansion of the Cloud Dine restaurant at Canyons. We currently plan to utilize cash on hand, borrowings available under our Credit Agreement and/or cash flow generated from future operations to provide the cash necessary to execute our capital plans.
In May 2013, we entered into a lease and ancillary transaction documents with Talikser pursuant to which we assumed resort operations of Canyons which includes the ski area and related amenities. The lease between us and Talisker for Canyons has an initial term of 50 years with six 50-year renewal options. The lease provides for $25 million in annual fixed payments, which increase each year by an inflation linked index of CPI less 1%, with a floor of 2% per annum. In addition, the lease includes participating contingent payments to Talisker of 42% of the amount by which EBITDA for the resort operations, as calculated under the lease, exceeds approximately $35 million, with such threshold amount increased by an inflation linked index and a 10% adjustment for any capital improvements or investments, which includes the acquisition of PCMR, made under the lease by us. As a result of this transaction, we have a long-term debt obligation (including capital lease obligations) of $311.9 million as of July 31, 2014.
On September 11, 2014, we acquired PCMR. The cash purchase price was $182.5 million, subject to certain post-closing adjustments, and was funded through borrowings under the revolver portion of our existing credit facility. We also made a required $10.0 million payment to Talisker under an existing agreement entered into at the time of the Canyons transaction. For additional information, see Note 19, Subsequent Event, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Principal payments on the vast majority of our long-term debt ($624.8 million of the total $626.6 million debt outstanding as of July 31, 2014) are not due until fiscal 2019 and beyond. As of July 31, 2014 and 2013, total long-term debt (including long-term debt due within one year) was $626.6 million and $796.9 million, respectively. Net Debt (defined as long-term debt plus long-term debt due within one year less cash and cash equivalents) decreased from $658.3 million as of July 31, 2013 to $582.2 million as of July 31, 2014 primarily due to an increase in cash and cash equivalents adjusted for the early redemption of $175.0 million of principal under our 6.50% Notes.
Our debt service requirements can be impacted by changing interest rates as we had $52.6 million of variable-rate debt associated with our employee housing development outstanding as of July 31, 2014. A 100-basis point change in LIBOR would cause our annual interest payments to change by approximately $0.5 million. Additionally, as stated above the annual payments associated with the financing of the Canyons transaction increase by the greater of CPI less 1%, or 2%. The fluctuation in our debt service requirements, in addition to interest rate and inflation changes, may be impacted by future borrowings under our Credit Agreement or other alternative financing arrangements we may enter into. Our long term liquidity needs are dependent upon operating results that impact the borrowing capacity under the Credit Agreement, which can be mitigated by adjustments to capital expenditures, flexibility of investment activities and the ability to obtain favorable future financing. We can respond to liquidity impacts of changes in the business and economic environment by managing our capital expenditures and the timing of new real estate development activity.

Our share repurchase program is conducted under authorizations made from time to time by our Board of Directors. The Board of Directors initially authorized the repurchase of up to 3,000,000 shares of common stock (March 9, 2006) and later authorized additional repurchases of up to 3,000,000 additional shares (July 16, 2008). During the year ended July 31, 2014, we did not repurchase any shares of common stock. Since inception of this stock repurchase program through July 31, 2014, we have repurchased 4,949,111 shares at a cost of approximately $193.2 million. As of July 31, 2014, 1,050,889 shares remained available to repurchase under the existing repurchase authorization. Shares of common stock purchased pursuant to the repurchase program will be held as treasury shares and may be used for the issuance of shares under the Company’s employee share award plan. Repurchases under these authorizations may be made from time to time at prevailing prices as permitted by applicable laws, and subject to market conditions and other factors. The timing as well as the number of shares that may be repurchased under the program will depend on a number of factors, including our future financial performance, our available cash resources and competing uses for cash that may arise in the future, the restrictions in our Credit Agreement and the

55




Indenture, prevailing prices of our common stock and the number of shares that become available for sale at prices that we believe are attractive. These authorizations have no expiration date.
In fiscal 2011, our Board of Directors approved the commencement of a regular quarterly cash dividend on our common stock at an annual rate of $0.60 per share, subject to quarterly declaration. Since the initial commencement of a regular quarterly cash dividend, our Board of Directors has annually approved an increase to our cash dividend on our common stock and on March 10, 2014, our Board of Directors approved a 100% increase to our quarterly cash dividend to $0.4150 per share (or approximately $15.0 million quarterly based upon shares outstanding as of July 31, 2014). For the year ended July 31, 2014, we paid cash dividends of $1.245 per share ($45.0 million in the aggregate). Our dividends were funded through available cash on hand. Subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors, applicable law and contractual restrictions, we anticipate paying regular quarterly cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. The amount, if any, of the dividends to be paid in the future will depend upon our available cash on hand, anticipated cash needs, overall financial condition, restrictions contained in our Credit Agreement and the Indenture, future prospects for earnings and cash flows, as well as other factors considered relevant by our Board of Directors.
Covenants and Limitations
We must abide by certain restrictive financial covenants under our Credit Agreement and the Indenture. The most restrictive of those covenants include the following Credit Agreement covenants: Net Funded Debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio and the Interest Coverage ratio (each as defined in the Credit Agreement). In addition, our financing arrangements, including the Indenture, limit our ability to incur certain indebtedness, make certain restricted payments, enter into certain investments, make certain affiliate transfers and may limit our ability to enter into certain mergers, consolidations or sales of assets. Our borrowing availability under the Credit Agreement is primarily determined by the Net Funded Debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio, which is based on our segment operating performance, as defined in the Credit Agreement.

We were in compliance with all restrictive financial covenants in our debt instruments as of July 31, 2014. We expect that we will continue to meet all applicable financial maintenance covenants in our Credit Agreement, including the Net Funded Debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio throughout the year ending July 31, 2015. However, there can be no assurance that we will continue to meet such financial covenants. If such covenants are not met, we would be required to seek a waiver or amendment from the banks who are parties to the Credit Agreement. There can be no assurance that such waiver or amendment would be granted, which could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity.
Contractual Obligations
As part of our ongoing operations, we enter into arrangements that obligate us to make future payments under contracts such as debt agreements, lease agreements and construction agreements in conjunction with our resort capital expenditures. Debt obligations, which total $626.6 million as of July 31, 2014, are recognized as liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheet. Obligations under construction contracts are not recognized as liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheet until services and/or goods are received which is in accordance with GAAP. Additionally, operating lease and service contract obligations, which total $270.6 million as of July 31, 2014, are not recognized as liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheet, which is in accordance with GAAP. A summary of our contractual obligations as of July 31, 2014 is as follows (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
Payments Due by Period
 
 
 
Fiscal
 
2-3
 
4-5
 
More than
Contractual Obligations
Total
 
2015
 
years
 
years
 
5 years
Long-Term Debt (Outstanding Principal) (1)
$
626,622

 
$
1,022

 
$
536

 
$
215,557

 
$
409,507

Fixed Rate Interest (1)
88,151

 
17,120

 
34,201

 
34,145

 
2,685

Canyons Obligation (2)
1,773,387

 
25,597

 
52,741

 
54,872

 
1,640,177

Operating Leases and Service Contracts (3)
270,584

 
37,520

 
58,099

 
45,506

 
129,459

Purchase Obligations and Other (4)
321,501

 
247,130

 
62,273

 
199

 
11,899

Total Contractual Cash Obligations
$
3,080,245

 
$
328,389

 
$
207,850

 
$
350,279

 
$
2,193,727

(1)         The fixed-rate interest payments, as well as long-term debt payments, included in the table above assume that all debt outstanding as of July 31, 2014 will be held to maturity. Interest payments associated with variable-rate debt have not been included in the table. Assuming that our $52.6 million of variable-rate long-term debt as of July 31, 2014 is held to maturity, and utilizing interest rates in effect at July 31, 2014, our annual interest payments (including commitment fees and letter of credit fees) on variable rate long-term debt as of July 31, 2014 is anticipated to be approximately $1.1 million for each of

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Fiscal 2015, Fiscal 2016 and for at least each of the next three years subsequent to Fiscal 2016. The future annual interest obligations noted herein are estimated only in relation to debt outstanding as of July 31, 2014, and do not reflect interest obligations on potential future debt.
(2)    Reflects interest expense payments associated with the remaining initial 50 year lease term of the Canyons obligation assuming a 2% per annum (floor) increase in payments. Any potential increases to the annual fixed payment above the 2% floor due to inflation linked index of CPI less 1% have been excluded.
(3)    The payments under noncancelable operating leases included in the table above reflect the applicable minimum lease payments and exclude any potential contingent rent payments.
(4)         Purchase obligations and other primarily include amounts which are classified as trade payables, accrued payroll and benefits, accrued fees and assessments, contingent consideration liability, accrued taxes (including taxes for uncertain tax positions) on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of July 31, 2014 and other commitments for goods and services not yet received, including construction contracts not included on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of July 31, 2014 in accordance with GAAP.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have off balance sheet transactions that are expected to have a material effect on our financial condition, revenue, expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to select appropriate accounting policies and to make judgments and estimates affecting the application of those accounting policies. In applying our accounting policies, different business conditions or the use of different assumptions may result in materially different amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
We have identified the most critical accounting policies which were determined by considering accounting policies that involve the most complex or subjective decisions or assessments. We also have other policies considered key accounting policies; however, these policies do not meet the definition of critical accounting policies because they do not generally require us to make estimates or judgments that are complex or subjective. We have reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures with our Audit Committee of the Board of Directors.

Real Estate Held for Sale and Investment
Description
We evaluate each real estate project on at least a quarterly basis to determine if indicators of potential impairment exist. Impairment indicators are assessed separately for each real estate project and include, but are not limited to: current economic conditions, the local real estate market and the number and type of real estate units we have available for sale, expected selling prices, net margins on units closed in recent months and projected margins on remaining units that are available for sale. A real estate project is considered impaired when its carrying value is greater than the undiscounted future net cash flows the project is expected to generate.
Judgments and Uncertainties
We determine the estimated cash flows by project starting with the current listing price of all units remaining to be sold by project which is then reduced by 1) an estimate for sales discounts and concessions anticipated to be given to buyers over the remaining estimated sales period that takes into consideration the current economic environment, local real estate market and the type of real estate we have held for sale; 2) marketing fees paid in conjunction with units to be sold, as applicable; 3) estimated sales commissions and other closing costs including title, transfer and escrow fees; and 4) estimated carrying costs net of rental income until units are sold, the sum of which is compared to the carrying value for each individual real estate project.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions
Based upon the analysis performed throughout Fiscal 2014, the estimated future cash flows of our real estate projects were in excess of their respective carrying values and as such no impairment charge has been recognized. Cash flows require

57




considerable judgment and are sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions and factors such as the ultimate selling price of individual units within a project and the estimated absorption period in which units are expected to be sold. As a result, there can be no assurance that the estimates and assumptions made for purposes of our impairment analysis will prove to be an accurate prediction of the future. For example, as of July 31, 2014, if our anticipated net cash proceeds (after sales concessions, discounts, selling and closing costs) on the remaining inventory of condominium units at One Ski Hill Place in Breckenridge were to decline by approximately 4.0%, compared to our current estimate we may be required to record an impairment charge on this project.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Description
The carrying value of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for possible impairment on an annual basis or between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible asset below its carrying value. Other intangible assets are evaluated for impairment only when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. We are required to determine goodwill impairment using a two-step process. The first step is used to identify potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the impairment test is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The impairment test for indefinite-lived intangible assets consists of a comparison of the estimated fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess.
Judgments and Uncertainties
Application of the goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, assignment of goodwill to reporting units and determination of the fair value of reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets. We determine the estimated fair value of our reporting units using a discounted cash flow analysis. The estimated fair value of indefinite-lived intangible assets is primarily determined using the income approach based upon estimated future revenue streams. These analyses require significant judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, available industry/market data (to the extent available), estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business including expectations and assumptions regarding the impact of general economic conditions on our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur (including terminal multiples), determination of the respective weighted average cost of capital and market participant assumptions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and impairment for each reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible asset. We evaluate our reporting units on an annual basis and allocate goodwill to our reporting units based on the reporting units expected to benefit from the acquisition generating the goodwill.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually as of May 1st. Based upon our annual impairment test performed during the fourth fiscal quarter of Fiscal 2014 the estimated fair value of our reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets were in excess of their respective carrying values, and as such no impairment of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets existed and the second step of the goodwill impairment test was not required. However, we determined that our Colorado Lodging reporting unit ($34.4 million of goodwill as of July 31, 2014) within our Lodging segment was at risk of failing step one of the goodwill impairment test, with the fair value of the reporting unit estimated at approximately 13% in excess of its carrying value and therefore is at risk for a future impairment in the event of significant unfavorable changes in the forecasted cash flows, terminal value multiples and/or weighted-average cost of capital utilized in the discounted cash flow analysis.
Fair value determinations require considerable judgment and are sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions and factors. As a result, there can be no assurance that the estimates and assumptions made for purposes of the annual goodwill impairment test will prove to be an accurate prediction of the future. Examples of events or circumstances that could reasonably be expected to negatively affect the underlying key assumptions and ultimately impact the estimated fair value of our Colorado Lodging reporting unit may include such items as: (1) prolonged adverse weather conditions; (2) a prolonged weakness in the general economic conditions in which the Colorado Lodging reporting unit operates and therefore negatively impacting group and transient room nights and ADR; and (3) volatility in the equity and debt markets which could result in a higher discount rate.

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While historical performance and current expectations have resulted in fair values of our reporting units in excess of carrying values, if our assumptions are not realized, it is possible that an impairment charge may need to be recorded in the future. However, it is not possible at this time to determine if an impairment charge would result or if such a charge would be material.
Additionally, as a result of the Canyons transaction, we recorded $106.4 million of goodwill which is primarily attributable to expected synergies, including the potential inclusion of a portion of the ski terrain of PCMR in the lease, among other factors. We cannot predict whether we will realize all of the synergies expected from our operation of Canyons, including from the recent acquisition of PCMR on September 11, 2014. As a result, there can be no assurance that the estimates and assumptions made for purposes of the annual goodwill impairment test of the Canyons goodwill will prove to be an accurate prediction of the future.
Tax Contingencies
Description
We must make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of tax credits and deductions and in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes, as well as the interest and penalties relating to uncertain tax positions. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on a two-step process. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step requires us to estimate and measure the largest tax benefit that is cumulatively greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to determine the probability of various possible outcomes. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, interpretation of tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activity. A significant amount of time may pass before a particular matter, for which we may have established a reserve, is audited and fully resolved.
Judgments and Uncertainties
The estimates of our tax contingencie